August 17: Issue 127

Page 11 Crohn’s disease: Nutritional management in children

1 Ruemmele FM, Veres G, Kolho KL, Griffiths A, Levine A, Escher JC, Amil Dias J, Barabino A, Braegger CP, Bronksky J et al (2014). Consensus guideline of ECCO/ESPGHAN on the medical management of paediatric Crohn’s disease’ Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis, 8, 1179-1207

2 Day AS, Whitten KE, Sidler M, Lemberg DA (2008). Systematic review: nutritional therapy in paediatric Crohn’s disease, Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 27, 293-307

3 Kappelman MD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Kleinman L, Ollendorf D, Bousvaros A, Grand RJ et al (2007). The prevalence and geographical distribution of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis in the United states, Clinical Gastroenterology Hepatology, 5 (12), 1424-9

4 Whitten KE, Roger P, YOOI C, Day AS (2012). International survey of enteral nutrition protocols used in children with Crohn’s disease, Journal of Digestive Diseases; 13; 107-112

5 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2012). Crohn’s disease: management. NICE clinical guideline 152 available at [NICE guideline]

6 Sandhu BK, Fell JME, Beattie RM, Mitton SG (2010). Guidelines for the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in Children in the United Kingdom, Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 50 (Supp 1): S1-S13

7 RCPCH (2012). UK-WHO growth charts, 0-18 years, available from

8 Fell JME, Paintin M, Arnaud-Battandier F et al (2000). Mucosal healing and a fall in mucosal pro inflammatory cytokine mRNA induced by a specific oral polymeric diet in paediatric Crohn’s disease, Alimentary Pharmacology Therapeutics: 14: 281-289

9 Zachos M, Tondeur M, Griffiths AM (2007). Enteral nutritional therapy for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1:Cd000542

10 SACN (2011). Dietary reference values for energy, available at

11 Rodrigues AF, Johnson T, Davies P, Murphy MS (2007). Does polymeric formula improve adherence to liquid diet therapy in children with active Crohn’s disease? Archis Dis Child; 92: 767-770

12 Grogan JL, Cassan D, Terry A et al (2012). Enteral feeding therapy for newly diagnosed paediatric Crohn’s disease: A double blind randomised controlled trial with two years follow-up, Inflammatory Bowel Disease: 18(2) 246-253

13 Johnson T, MacDonald S, Hill SM, Thomas A Murphy MS (2006). Treatment of active Crohn’s disease in children using partial enteral nutrition with liquid formula: a randomised controlled trial, Gut: available at British Medical Journal: 55; 356-361

14 Faiman A, Mutalib M, Moylan A et al (2014). ‘Standard versus rapid food reintroduction after exclusive enteral nutritional therapy in paediatric Crohn’s disease, European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology: 26; 276-281

15 Duncan H, Buchanan E, Cardigan T et al (2014). A retrospective study showing maintenance treatment options for paediatric CD in the first year following diagnosis after induction of remission with EEN: supplemental enteral nutrition is better than nothing! BMC Gastroenterology; 14:50

16 Day AS, Whitten KE, Lemberg DA et al (2006). Exclusive enteral feeding as primary therapy for Crohn's disease in Australian children and adolescents: a feasible and effective approach, Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology: 21: 1609-14

17 Knight C, El-Matary W, Spray C, Sandhu B (2005). Long-term outcome of nutritional therapy in paediatric Crohn’s disease, Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 24: 775-779

Page 16 – Adult food allergy

1 Young E, Stoneham MD, Petuckevitch A, Barton J, Rana R. A population study of food intolerance. Lancet 1994; 343:1127-30

2 Skypala IJ, Bull S, Deegan K, Gruffydd-Jones K et al. The prevalence of PFS and prevalence and characteristics of reported food allergy; a survey of UK adults aged 18-75 incorporating a validated PFS diagnostic questionnaire. Clin Exp Allergy. 2013;43:928-940

3 Burney P, Summers C, Chinn S, Hooper R et al. Prevalence and distribution of sensitisation to foods in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey: a EuroPrevall analysis. Allergy. 2010;65:1182-1188

4 Turner PJ, Gowland MH, Sharma V, Ierodiakonou D et al. Increase in anaphylaxis-related hospitalisations but no increase in fatalities: an analysis of United Kingdom national anaphylaxis data, 1992-2012. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135:956-963

5 Skypala IJ, Venter C, Meyer R, deJong NW et al. The development of a standardised diet history tool to support the diagnosis of food allergy. Clin Transl Allergy. 2015 Feb 19;5:7

6 Patelis A, Gunnbjörnsdottir M, Borres MP, Burney P et al. Natural history of perceived food hypersensitivity and IgE sensitisation to food allergens in a cohort of adults. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 10;9(1):e85333

7 Werfel T, Asero R, Ballmer-Weber BK, Beyer K et al. Position paper of the EAACI: food allergy due to immunological cross-reactions with common inhalant allergens. Allergy. 2015;70:1079-1090

8 Röckmann H, van Geel MJ, Knulst AC, Huiskes J et al. Food allergen sensitisation pattern in adults in relation to severity of atopic dermatitis. Clin Transl Allergy. 2014;4:9

9 Chang A, Robison R, Cai M, Singh AM. Natural History of Food-Triggered Atopic Dermatitis and Development of Immediate Reactions in Children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4:229-236

10 Muraro A, Werfel T, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Roberts G et al. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy. Allergy. 2014;69:1008-1025

11 Savage J, Sicherer S, Wood R. The Natural History of Food Allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4:196-203

12 Martorell-Aragonés A, Echeverría-Zudaire L, Alonso-Lebrero E, Boné-Calvo J et al. Position document: IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2015;43:507-526

13 Bartnikas LM, Sheehan WJ, Hoffman EB, Permaul P et al. Predicting food challenge outcomes for baked milk: role of specific IgE and skin prick testing. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012;109:309-313

14 Gradman J, Mortz CG, Eller E, Bindslev-Jensen C. Relationship between specific IgE to egg components and natural history of egg allergy in Danish children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2016;27:825-830

15 Peters RL, Allen KJ, Dharmage SC, Koplin JJ, Dang T et al. Natural history of peanut allergy and predictors of resolution in the first 4 years of life: A population-based assessment. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135:1257-1266

16 Bégin P, Paradis L, Paradis J, Picard M, Des Roches A. Natural resolution of peanut allergy: a 12-year longitudinal follow-up study. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013;1:528-530

17 Sampson HA, Aceves S, Bock SA, et al. (2014) Food allergy: a practice parameter update-2014. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 134:1016-1025

18 Lomas JM, Järvinen KM. Managing nut-induced anaphylaxis: challenges and solutions. J Asthma Allergy. 2015;8:115-123

19 Deschildre A, Elegbédé CF, Just J, Bruyère O, et al. Peanut-allergic patients in the MIRABEL survey: characteristics, allergists' dietary advice and lessons from real life. Clin Exp Allergy. 2016;46:610-620

20 Ballmer-Weber BK, Lidholm J, Fernández-Rivas M, Seneviratne S. IgE recognition patterns in peanut allergy are age dependent: perspectives of the EuroPrevall study. Allergy. 2015;70:391-407

21 Beyer K, Grabenhenrich L, Härtl M, Beder A et al. Predictive values of component-specific IgE for the outcome of peanut and hazelnut food challenges in children. Allergy. 2015;70:90-98

22 Eller E, Bindslev-Jensen C. Clinical value of component-resolved diagnostics in peanut-allergic patients. Allergy. 2013;68:190-194

23 Acker WW, Plasek JM, Blumenthal KG et al. Prevalence of food allergies and intolerances documented in electronic health records. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 May 23. pii:S0091-6749(17)30672-3

24 Worm M, Eckermann O, Dölle S, Aberer W, et al. Triggers and treatment of anaphylaxis: an analysis of 4,000 cases from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2014 May 23;111(21):367-75

25 Kamdar TA, Peterson S, Lau CH, Saltoun CA, Gupta RS, Bryce PJ. Prevalence and characteristics of adult-onset food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3:114-115

26 Khan F, Orson F, Ogawa Y, Parker C, Davis CM. Adult seafood allergy in the Texas Medical Center: A 13-year experience. Allergy Rhinol (Providence). 2011;2:e71-7

27 Lopata AL, Kleine-Tebbe J, Kamath SD. Allergens and molecular diagnostics of shellfish allergy: Part 22 of the Series Molecular Allergology. Allergo J Int. 2016;25(7):210-218

28 Asero R, Scala E, Villalta D, Pravettoni V et al. Shrimp Allergy: Analysis of Commercially Available Extracts for In Vivo Diagnosis. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2017;27(3):175-182

29 Pariyaprasert W, Piboonpocanun S, Jirapongsananuruk O, Visitsunthorn N. Stability and potency of raw and boiled shrimp extracts for skin prick test. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2015 Jun;33(2):136-42

30 Fernández-Rivas M. (2015) Fruit and vegetable allergy. Chem Immunol Allergy.101:162-170

31 Katelaris CH. Should patients with pollen fruit syndrome be prescribed an automatic epinephrine injector? Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;16:370-374

32 Berneder M, Bublin M, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Hawranek T, Lang R. Allergen. Chip diagnosis for soy-allergic patients: Gly m 4 as a marker for severe food-allergic reactions to soy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2013;161:229-233

33 Azofra J, Berroa F, Gastaminza G et al. Lipid Transfer Protein Syndrome in a Non-Mediterranean Area. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2016;169:181-188

34 Mothes-Luksch N, Raith M, Stingl G et al. Pru p 3, a marker allergen for lipid transfer protein sensitization also in Central Europe. Allergy. 2017 Mar 2

35 Scala E, Cecchi L, Abeni D et al. Pla a 2 and Pla a 3 reactivities identify plane tree-allergic patients with respiratory symptoms or food allergy. Allergy. 2017;72:671-674

36 Antolin-Amerigo D, Rodríguez-Rodríguez M, Barbarroja-Escudero J et al. Linseed Allergy Due to LTP: Another Food for LTP Syndrome. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2016;26:376-377

37 Martín-Pedraza L, González M, Gómez F et al. Two nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) from tomato seeds are associated to severe symptoms of tomato-allergic patients. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016;60:1172-1182

38 Muñoz-García E, Luengo-Sánchez O, Moreno-Pérez N et al. Lettuce Allergy Is a Lipid Transfer Syndrome-Related Food Allergy With a High Risk of Severe Reactions. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2017;27:98-103

39 Larramendi CH, García-Abujeta JL, Vicario S, García-Endrino A et al. Goji berries (Lycium barbarum): risk of allergic reactions in individuals with food allergy. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2012;22:345-350

40 Gonsalves N. Distinct features in the clinical presentations of eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adults: is this the same disease? Dig Dis. 2014;32(1-2):89-92

41 Segal D, Chande N. The management of eosinophilic esophagitis in adults. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;47):570-577

42 Tan JA, Smith WB. Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity syndrome in adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2014;2:355-357

43 Skypala IJ, Williams M, Reeves L, Meyer R et al. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence. Clin Transl Allergy. 2015 Oct 13;5:34

44 Nwaru BI, Hickstein L, Panesar SS, Roberts G et al. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy. 2014;69:992-1007

45 Golley S, Corsini N, Topping D, Morell M, Mohr P. Motivations for avoiding wheat consumption in Australia: results from a population survey. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18:490-499

46 van Gils T, Nijeboer P, IJssennagger CE, et al. Prevalence and Characterisation of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands. Nutrients. 2016;8(11)

47 Elli L, Tomba C, Branchi F et al. Evidence for the Presence of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity in Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Results from a Multicentre Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Gluten Challenge. Nutrients. 2016;8:84

48 Wu JH, Neal B, Trevena H et al. Are gluten-free foods healthier than non-gluten-free foods? An evaluation of supermarket products in Australia. Br J Nutr. 2015;114:448-454

49 Catassi G, Lionetti E, Gatti S, Catassi C. The Low FODMAP Diet: Many Question Marks for a Catchy Acronym. Nutrients. 2017;9

Page 19 – Vitamin and mineral supplements are they neede for children

1 Peaslee KR (2008). Nutrition Insurance for Children. Today’s Dietitian. Vol 10 (1): 50

2 Morris CC. Pediatric iron poisonings in the United States. South Med J. 2000 Apr; 93 (4): 352-8.

3 Ohlund I et al (2017). Increased vitamin D intake differentiated according to skin colour is needed to meet requirements in young Swedish children during winter: a double-blind randomised clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 14. pii: ajcn147108. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.147108. [Epub ahead of print]

4 NIH. Office of dietary supplements. Vitamin C.

5 Baker RD, Greer FR. Committee on Nutrition American Academy of Pediatrics. Diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0-3 years of age). Pediatrics. 2010 Nov; 126 (5):1040-50. Epub 2010 Oct 5

6 Morris CC. Pediatric iron poisonings in the United States. South Med J. 2000 Apr;93 (4): 352-8

Page 22 – The ‘tired all the time generation’ alternative ways to re-energise

1 NHS Choices (2015). Why am I tired all the time?

2 NICE (2015). Tiredness/fatigue in adults. Available at:

3 Royal College of Psychiatrists (2012). Tiredness. Available at:

4 Kleebauer A (2014). Night-shift staff are more likely to struggle to remain a healthy weight. Nurs Stand 29(10):14-5 (pp13-16)

6 Sorkin BC et al (2014). Executive summary of NIH workshop on the use and biology of energy drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Gaps. Nutr Rev 72 Suppl 1:1-8

7 Kim IK and Kim KM (2015). Energy drink consumption patterns and associated factors among nursing students: a descriptive survey study. J Addict Nurs 26(1): 24-31

10 Lodato F et al (2013). Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents. Nutr Res 33: 726-732

11 Spaeth AM et al (2014). Cumulative neurobehavioral and physiological effects of chronic caffeine intake: individual differences and implications for the use of caffeinated energy products. Nutr Rev 72 Suppl 1: 34-47

12 Bates B et al (2016). National Diet and Nutrition Survey Results from Years 5 and 6 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2012/2013-2013/2014). PHE and FSA: London

13 DeLoughery TG (2017). Iron Deficiency Anaemia. Med Clin North Am 101(2): 319-332

14 Ganio MS et al (2011). Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men. Br J Nutr 106(10): 1535-43

15 EFSA (2010). Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for Water. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies. EFSA Journal 8(3): 1459

16 Patel S and Rauf A (2017). Adaptogenic herb ginseng (Panax) as medical food: Status quo and future prospects. Biomed Pharmacother 85: 120-127

17 Bao L et al (2016). Anti-fatigue effects of small molecule oligopeptides isolated from Panax ginseng C. A Meyer in Mice. Nutrients 8(12) pii: E807

18 Etemadifar M et al (2013). Ginseng in the treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study. Int J Neurosci 123(7): 480-6

19 Yennurajalingam S et al (2015). High-dose Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) for cancer-related fatigue: A Preliminary Report. Integr Cancer Ther 14(5): 419-27

20 Kim HG et al (2013). Anti-fatigue effects of Panax ginseng. CA Meyer: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS One 8(4): e61271

21 Reay JL et al (2010). Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults. Hum Psychopharmacol 25(6): 462-71

22 Choi JY et al (2011). Red ginseng supplementation more effectively alleviates psychological than physical fatigue. J Ginseng Res 35(3): 331-8

23 Dong W et al (2017). Inhibition of influenza A virus infection by ginsenosides. PLoS One 12(2): e0171936

Page 25 – Cows’ milk protein allergy in infants.

1 World Health Organisation (2007). Global surveillance, prevention and control of chronic respiratory diseases;

2 Venter et al (2013). Diagnosis and management of non-IgE-mediated cows’ milk allergy in infancy - a UK primary care practical guide;

3 Fiocchi et al (2010). World Allergy organisation diagnosis and rationale for action against cows’ milk allergy (DRACMA) guidelines

4 Luyt et al (2014). BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of cows’ milk allergy;

5 NICE (2015). Cows' milk protein allergy in children;

6 Caffarelli et al (2010). Cows’ milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide;

7 Skypala IJ, Venter C, Meyer R, et al. The development of a standardised diet history tool to support the diagnosis of food allergy. Clin.Transl.Allergy 2015;5:7

8 Saarinen (2000). Risk factors and characteristics of cows’ milk protein allergy;

9 The MAP Guideline available at: new iMAP Guidelines will be published on 16th August 2017

10 Saarinen et al (2005). Clinical course and prognosis of cows’ milk allergy are dependent on milk-specific IgE status

11 NICE (2011). Food allergy in under 19s: assessment and diagnosis;

12 NHS Choices (2016). Lactose intolerance;

13 Shaw and Lawson (2014). Clinical Paediatric Dietetics 4th edition

14 Department of Health (1991). Dietary reference values for food and energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom

15 ESPGHAN (2012). Diagnostic approach and management of cows’ milk protein allergy in infants and children: ESPGHAN GI Committee Practical Guidelines;

16 Canani (2013). Formula selection for management of children with cows’ milk allergy influences the rate of acquisition of tolerance;

17 Cafferelli et al (2002). Determination of allergenicity to three cows’ milk hydrolysates and an amino acid-derived formula in children with cows’ milk allergy

18 European Society of Paediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (1993). Hydrolysed cows’ milk formulae: allergenicity and use in treatment and prevention

19 Klemola et al (2002). Allergy to soy formula and to extensively hydrolyzed whey formula in infants with cows' milk allergy

20 Muraro A, Halken S, Arshad SH, et al. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy. Allergy 2014;69:590-601.

21 Grimshaw K, Logan K, O'Donovan S, et al. Modifying the infant's diet to prevent food allergy. Arch.Dis.Child 2016.

22 Muraro A, Werfel T, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, et al. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy. Allergy 2014;69:1008-1025.

23 De Koker CE, Shah N, Meyer R. The differences between lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy. J Fam.Health Care 2014;24:14-8, 20.

24 Host A, Koletzko B, Dreborg S, et al. Dietary products used in infants for treatment and prevention of food allergy. Joint Statement of the European Society for Paediatric Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) Committee on Hypoallergenic Formulas and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition. Arch Dis Child 1999;81:80-84.

25 Agostoni C, Axelsson I, Goulet O, et al. Soy protein infant formulae and follow-on formulae: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2006;42:352-361.

Page 33 – Low protein diets in metabolic disorders: an overview

1 Paula Hallam RD (2017). The use of Glycomacropeptide as an alternative source for PKU. NHD April 2017, issue 123 p37-42

2 Das AM et al; Dietary Habits and Metabolic Control in Adolescents and Young Adults with Phenylketonuria: Self-Imposed Protein Restriction May Be Harmful JIMD Reports 2013

3 van Spronsen et al Key European guidelines for the diagnosis and management, of patients with phenylketonuria, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2017 S2213-8587(16)30320-5

4 Cochrane B et al; A questionnaire survey on the usage of low protein staple foods by people with phenylketonuria in Scotland (2014) J Hum Nutr Diet 27, 533-541

5 A Macdonald et al; The personal burden for caregivers of children with phenylketonuria: A cross-sectional study investigating time burden and costs in the UK; Mol Gen Metab Reports 9 (2016) 1-5

Page 38 – New galactosaemia guidelines: what do they mean for dietitians?

1 Jumbo-Lucioni PP, Garber K, Kiel J et al (2012). Diversity of approaches to classic galactosemia around the world: a comparison of diagnosis, intervention, and outcomes. J Inherit Metab Dis 35:1037-49. doi: 10.1007/s10545-012-9477-y

2 Walter JH, Collins JE, Leonard J V (1999). Recommendations for the management of galactosaemia. UK Galactosaemia Steering Group. Arch Dis Child 80:93-6

3 Adam S, Akroyd R, Bernabei S et al (2015). How strict is galactose restriction in adults with galactosaemia? International practice. Mol Genet Metab 115:23-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2015.03.008

4 Vandenplas Y, Castrellon PG, Rivas R et al (2014). Safety of soya-based infant formulas in children. Br J Nutr 111:1340–60. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513003942

5 Van Calcar SC, Bernstein LE, Rohr FJ et al (2014). A re-evaluation of life-long severe galactose restriction for the nutrition management of classic galactosemia. Mol Genet Metab 112:191-197. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.04.004

6 Berry GT, Palmieri M, Gross KC et al (1993). The effect of dietary fruits and vegetables on urinary galactitol excretion in galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis 16:91-100

7 Coss KP, Byrne JC, Coman DJ et al (2012). IgG N-glycans as potential biomarkers for determining galactose tolerance in Classical Galactosaemia. Mol Genet Metab 105:212-220. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.10.018

8 Lee PJ, Lilburn M, Wendel U, Schadewaldt P (2003). A woman with untreated galactosaemia. Lancet 362:446

9 Panis B, Bakker JA, Sels JPJE et al (2006a). Untreated classical galactosemia patient with mild phenotype. Mol Genet Metab 89:277-279. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2006.03.002

10 Portnoi PA, MacDonald A (2015). The Lactose and Galactose Content of Cheese Suitable for Galactosaemia: New Analysis. JIMD Rep. doi: 10.1007/8904_2015_520

11 Schadewaldt P, Kamalanathan L, Hammen HW, Wendel U (2004). Age dependence of endogenous galactose formation in Q188R homozygous galactosemic patients. Mol Genet Metab 81:31-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2003.10.007

12 Welling L et al (2016). International clinical guideline for the management of classical galactosaemia: diagnosis, treatment and follow-up JIMD ( doi:10.10007/s10545-0169990-5

Page 43 – Case study: Enteral feeding and nutrition support in a patient with Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy

1 Todorovic VE and Micklewright A (2011). Pocket Guide to Clinical Nutrition, 4th Edition. The Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Group of the British Dietetic Association

2 Bushby K (2009). Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 2: implementation of multidisciplinary care. The Lancet [online]. DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70272-8

3 Nutrition support in adults. Clinical guideline CG32, 2006,

4 Loeser C, von Herz U, Küchler T, Rzehak P and Müller MJ (2003). Quality of life and nutritional state in patients on home enteral tube feeding. Nutrition. Vol 19, Issues 7-8, July-August, Pages 605-611

5 Khan LUR, Ahmed J, Khan S and MacFie J (2011). ‘Refeeding syndrome: a Literature Review’. Gastroenterology Research and Practice, Vol 2011, Article ID 410971, 6 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/410971

6 Martínez-Costa C, Borraz S, Benlloch C, López-Sáiz A, Sanchiz V, Brines J (2011). Early decision of gastrostomy tube insertion in children with severe developmental disability: a current dilemma. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol 24, Issue 2, pages 115-121, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-277X.2010.01146.x

7 Mizuno T (2012). Efficacy and tolerance of gastrostomy feeding in Japanese muscular dystrophy patients. Brain & Development, Vol 34, pp 756-762, doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2011.11.012

8 Martigne L, Seguy D, Pellegrini N, Orlikowski D, Cuisset JM, Carpentier A, Tiffreau V, Guimber D, Gottrand F (2010). Efficacy and tolerance of gastrostomy feeding in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Clinical Nutrition, Vol 29, pp 60-64. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2009.06.009

9 Davidson ZE and Truby H (2009). A review of nutrition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Hum Nutr Diet, 22, pp 383-393. doi:10.1111/j.1365-277X.2009.00979.x

10 Kley RA, Vorgerd M and Tarnopolsky MA (2007). Creatine for treating muscle disorders (Review). Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 1, CD004760

11 Mok E (2006). Oral glutamine and amino acid supplementation inhibit whole-body protein degradation in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy’. Am J Clin Nutr, Vol 83, pp 823-8. [Online] Accessed from on May 28, 2013

12 Mental Capacity Act (2005). c9, London: HMSO. Available at

13 MENCAP (2011). Inclusive support for parents with a learning disability the difference.pdf

Page 48 – Battling obesity: Is pregnancy a teachable moment?

1 Sebire NJ, Jolly M, Harris JP, Wadsworth J, Joffe M, Beard RW, Regan L and Robinson S (2001). Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: a study of 287,213 pregnancies in London. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 1175-1182

2 Langley-Evans SC (2015). Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: a review. J Hum Nutr Diet. 28 (Suppl 1), 1-14

3 Institute of Medicine (2009). Weight gain during pregnancy: re-examining the guidelines. Washington, DC: National Academies Press

4 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2010). Dietary interventions and physical activity interventions for weight management before, during and after pregnancy. Public Health Guidance PH27

5 Dodd JM, Turnbull D, McPhee AJ, Deussen AR, Grivell RM, Yelland LN, Crowther CA, Wittert G, Owens JA and Robinson JS (2014). Antenatal lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese: LIMIT randomised trial. BMJ 348, g1285

6 Poston L, Briley AL, Barr S, Bell R, Croker H, Coxon K, Essex HN, Hunt C, Hayes L, Howard LM, Khazaezadeh N, Kinnunen T, Nelson SM, Oteng-Ntim E, Robson SC, Sattar N, Seed PT, Wardle J, Sanders TA and Sandall J (2013). Developing a complex intervention for diet and activity behaviour change in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT trial); assessment of behavioural change and process evaluation in a pilot randomised controlled trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 13, 148

7 McGiveron A, Foster S, Pearce J, Taylor MA, McMullen S and Langley-Evans SC (2015). Limiting antenatal weight gain improves maternal health outcomes in severely obese pregnant women: findings of a pragmatic evaluation of a midwife-led intervention. J Hum Nutr Diet. 28 (Suppl. 1), 29-37

8 Olander EK, Berg M, McCourt C, Carlstron E and Dencker A (2015). Person-centred care in interventions to limit weight gain in pregnant women with obesity, BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 15: 50

9 Brown A and Avery A (2012). Healthy weight management during pregnancy: what advice and information is being provided. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 25: 378-387