December/January Issue 120

References for Issue 120

Page 8 Mediterranean diet: what does it mean exactly?

1 De Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I, Delaye J, Mamelle N (1999). Mediterranean Diet, traditional risk factors and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report to the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation 6, 779-85

2 Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvado J et al (2013). Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean Diet. New England Journal of Medicine 368, 1279-90 

Page 11 Fussy eating in toddlers and children

1 Andrea D Smith et al. Food fussiness and food neophobia share a common etiology in early childhood. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 14 October 2016

2 Van der Horst et al (2016). Picky eating: associations with child eating characteristics and food intake. Appetite, 103: 286-293

3 Galloway AT, Fiorito L, Lee Y and Birch LL (2005). Parental pressure, dietary patterns and weight status among girls who are ‘picky eaters’. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105 (4) 541-548

4 McCormick V and Markowitz G (2013). Picky eater or feeding disorder? Strategies for determining the difference. Adv Healthc Netw for NPs & PAs, 4: 18-22

5 Kerzner B, Milano K et al (2015). A practical approach to classifying and managing feeding difficulties. Pediatrics, 135: 344-353

6 Taylor CM, Wernimont SM et al 2015. Picky/fussy eating in children: Review of definitions, assessment, prevalence and dietary intakes. Appetite, 95:349-359

7 Dovey TM, Staples PA et al (2008). Food neophobia and ‘picky/fussy’ eating in children: A review. Appetite, 50: 181-193

8 Horst van der K, Eldridge A et al (2014). Caregivers’ perceptions about picky eating: associations with texture acceptance and food intake. (379.3), FASEB Journal, 28

9 Rozin and Vollmecke (1986). Food likes and dislikes. Annual Review of Nutrition 6: 433-456

10 Kerzner et al (2015). A practical approach to classifying and managing feeding difficulties, Pediatrics 135 (2), Feb 2015

11 Tharner A, Jansen P et al (2014). Toward an operative diagnosis of fussy/picky eating: a latent profile approach in a population-based cohort. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity. 11, 14.

12 Carruth BR, Ziegler PJ et al (2004). Prevalence of picky eating among infants and toddlers and their caregivers’ decisions about offering a new food. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 104: s57-64


14 Galloway AT, Lee Y and Birch LL (2003). Predictors and consequences of food neophobia and pickiness in young girls. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103: 692-698

15 Shim JE, Kim J et al (2011). Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviours of preschool children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111: 1363-1368

16 Finistrella V, Manco M et al (2012). Cross-sectional exploration of maternal reports of food neophobia and pickiness in preschooler-mother dyads. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 31: 152-159

17 Jacobi C, Agras WS et al (2003). Behavioural validation precursors and concomitants of picky eating in childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42: 76-84

18 Dubois L, Farmer AP et al (2007). Preschool children’s eating behaviours are related to dietary adequacy and body weight. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61: 846-855

19 Volger S, Sheng X et al (2013). Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of preschool children with picky eating behaviours. In Abstract. European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN 2013), 13: 1141

20 Carruth BR, Skinner J et al (1998). The phenomenon of ‘picky eater: a behavioural marker in eating patterns of toddlers. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 17: 180-186

21 Schrek KA, Williams K, Smith AF (2004). A comparison of eating behaviours between children with and without autism. Journal of Autism and Development., 34 (4): 433-438

Page 16 Nutritional treatment in chronic kidney disease

1 Bellizzi V et al. A Delphi consensus panel on nutritional therapy in chronic kidney disease. J Nephrol, 2016; 29 (5): 593-602

2 Bellizzi V et al. Low-protein diets for chronic kidney disease patients: the Italian experience. BMC Nephrology, 2016; 17: 77

3 Brunori G et al. Terapia nutrizionale nell`IRC in fase conservativa: suggerimenti di pratica clinica e di applicazione delle Linee Guida. Giornale italiano di nefrologia, 2013;,WsIdRisposta,WsRelease&c1=00084&c2=2&c3=1, accessed 1 October 2016

4 Carrero JJ and Campbell KL. Diet for the Management of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease; It is not the Quantity but the Quality that matters. Journal of Renal Nutrition, 2016; 26(5): 279-281

5 D´Alessandro C et al. Dietary protein restriction for renal patients: don’t forget protein-free foods. J Ren Nutr, 2013; 23: 367-71

6 De Nicola L and Minutolo R. Worldwide growing epidemic of CKD: fact or fiction? Kidney Int. 2016; 90(3): 482-4

7 Foque D et al. Low protein diets delay end stage renal disease in non-diabetic adults with chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2000; 15: 1986-1992

8 Giovannetti S and Maggiore Q. A low nitrogen diet with proteins of high biological value for severe chronic uremia. Lancet, 1964; 1:1000-3

9 Huang X et al. Mediterranean diet, kidney function and mortality in men with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol; 2013; 8: 1548-1555

10 Kalaitzidis RG and Siamopoulos KC. The role of obesity in kidney disease: recent findings and potential mechanisms. Int Urol Nephrol, 2011; 43(3): 771-84

11 Kalantar-Zadeh K et al. North American experience with Low protein diet for Non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrology, 2016; 17:90

12 Khatri M, Moon YP, Scarmeas N et al. The association between a Mediterranean-style diet and kidney function in the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol; 2014; 9: 1868-1875

13 Mennini FS et al. Economic effects of treatment of chronic kidney disease with low-protein diet. J Ren Nutr, 2014; 24(5): 313-21

14 National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification and stratification. Am J Kidney, 2002; 39 (suppl 1): S145-S163

Page 19 The role of wholegrains in weight management

1 Van der Kamp et al (2014). The HEALTHGRAIN definition of 'whole grain'. Food Nutr Res 58

2 BDA Food factsheet ‘Wholegrain’ (

3 Aune et al (2016). Wholegrain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies (

4 Aune et al (2011). Dietary fibre, wholegrains and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies (

5 SACN (2015). Carbohydrates and Health (

6 Slavin and Green (2007). Dietary fibre and satiety (

7 Slavin (2005). Dietary fibre and body weight (

8 Van Dam RM and Seidell JC (2007). Carbohydrate intake and obesity. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61 (Suppl 1): 75-99)

9 Albertson et al (2016). Wholegrain consumption trends and associations with body weight measures in the United States: results from the cross sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2012 (

10 Dong et al (2015). Consumption Of Specific Foods And Beverages And Excess Weight Gain Among Children And Adolescents (

11 Grimes and Gordon (1978). Satiety value of wholemeal and white bread Lancet 17: 106

12 Howarth et al (2001). Dietary Fibre and Weight Regulation (

13 EFSA (2010). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to wholegrain (ID 831, 832, 833, 1126, 1268, 1269, 1270, 1271, 1431) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 8, 1766

14 NICE (2006). Obesity Prevention (

15 FSA (2016). The Eatwell Guide (

16 The Wholegrain Council (accessed September 2016) (

17 PHE (2016). National Diet and Nutrition Survey (

18 Mann et al (2015). Low wholegrain intake in the UK: results from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11 (

19 British Nutrition Foundation Dietary Fibre (accessed September 2016) (

20 Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 (

Page 23 The changing face of head and neck cancer

1 Cancer Research UK, Accessed April 2016.

2 Young D, Xiao CC, Murphy B, Moore M, Fakhry C and Day T (2015). Increase in head and neck cancer in younger patients due to human papillomavirus (HPV). Oral Oncology Vol 51, 8, pp 727-730

3 National Cancer Intelligence Network (2012).

4 Zaravinos A (2014). An updated overview of HPV- associated head and neck carcinomas. Oncotarget 5, 12 pp 3956-3969

5 Liu Y, Fang Z, Liu L et al (2011). Detection of Epstein- Barr virus DNA in serum or plasma for nasopharyngeal cancer: a meta-analysis. Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 15: 495-502

6 Chang ET and Hans-Olov A (2006). The Enigmatic Epidemiology of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 15, 10 1765-1777

7 Chuang SC, Jenab M, Heck JE et al (2012). Diet and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium. Cancer Causes and Controls 23: 69-88

Page 27 Vitamin D update on guidelines and recommendations

1 PHE July 2016. Accessed November 2016.

2 SACN (2016). Vitamin D and Health. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Accessed November 2016

3 COMA (1991). Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy

4 RCPCH (2013). Guide for vitamin D in Childhood. Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. London. Accessed November 2016.

5 Braegger C, Campoy C, Colomb V, Decsi T, Domellof M, Fewtrell M, Hojsak I, Mihatsch W, Molgaard C and Shamir R (2013). Vitamin D in the healthy European paediatric population. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 56, 692-701

6 Theodoratou E, Tzoulaki I, Zgaga L, Ioannidis JP (2014). Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomised trials. BMJ. 348, g2035

7 Davies, SC. Chief Medical Officer: Prevention pays - our children deserve better. United Kingdom Department of Health, 2013. Accessed November 2016

8 Burren CP, Jacobs B, Mughal MZ, Offiah AC, Shaw NJ (2012). British Paediatric and Adolescent Bone Group's position statement on vitamin D deficiency. BMJ. 45; e8182. 3rd December.

9 Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, Aloia JF, Brannon PM, Clinton SK, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Gallagher JC, Gallo RL, Jones , Kovacs CS, Mayne ST, Rosen CJ, Shapses SA (2011). The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96, 53-58

10 Munns C et al (2016). Global Consensus Recommendations on Prevention and Management of Nutritional Rickets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. February 101 (2): 394-415

11 Durup D, Jorgensen HL, Christensen J, Schwarz P, Heegard AM, Lind B (2012). A reverse J-shaped association of all-cause mortality with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in general practice: the CopD study. J Clin Endocrinol. Metab 94: 2716-21

12 NDNS (2014). Accessed November 2016

13 Hollis BW, Wagner CL, Howard CR, Ebeling M, Shary JR, Smith PG, Taylor SN, Morella K, Lawrence RA, Hulsey TC (2015). Maternal versus infant vitamin D supplementation during lactation: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Pediatrics. Oct 15; 136(4): 625-34. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-1669

14 Taryn J Smith, L Tripkovic, C T Damsgaard, C Mølgaard, C Ritz, S L Wilson-Barnes, K G Dowling, Á Hennessy, K D Cashman, M Kiely, S A Lanham-New, K H Hart (2016). Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in adolescents aged 14-18 y: a dose-response, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial Am J Clin Nutr ajcn138065. First published online September 21, 2016. Accessed November 2016

Page 30 Management of eating disorders for non-specialist dietitians

1 Health and Care Professions Council (2013). Standards of proficiency: Dietitians. London  

2 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2004). Eating Disorders: Core interventions in the treatment and management of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related eating disorders (Guideline CG9). London: NICE 

3 Royal College of Psychiatrists & Royal College of Physicians (2014) MARSIPAN: Management of Really Sick Patients with Anorexia Nervosa (College Report CR162) 

4 Royal College of Psychiatrists & Royal College of Physicians (2010) Junior MARSIPAN: Management of Really Sick Patients under 18 with Anorexia Nervosa (College Report CR168)

Page 34 Palm oil: feeding the next generation on unethical oils?

1. Mba OI et al (2015). Palm Oil: Processing, characterisation and utilisation in the food industry. A review. Food Biosci 10: 26-41

2. World Wildlife Fund (2016). Palm oil: productive and versatile. Available at:

3. Ntsomboh-Ntsefong G et al (2016). Brief review on the controversies around palm oil (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Production and Palm Oil Consumption. International Journal of Regional Development 3(2): 2373-9851

4. Fitzherbert EB et al (2008). How will palm oil expansion affect biodiversity? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23(10): 538-45

5. Mancini A et al (2015). Biological and nutritional properties of palm oil and palmitic acid: effects on health. Molecules 20: 17339-17361

6. Sun Y et al (2015). Palm oil consumption increases LDL cholesterol compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat in a meta-analysis of clinical trials. J Nutr 145(7):1549-58

7. European Commission (2014). New EU labelling rules. Available at:

8. Hinrichsen N (2016). Commercially available alternatives to palm oil. Lipid Technol. 28(3-4):65-67

9. M & S (2016). Plan A. Raw Materials, Commodities and Ingredients. Available at:

10. WWF (2016). Which everyday products contain palm oil? Available at:

11. Mizurini DM et al (2011). Venous thrombosis risk: effects of palm oil and hydrogenated fat diet in rats. Nutrition 27(2):233-8

12. EFSA (2016). Risks for human health related to the presence of 3- and 2-monochloropropanediol (MCPD), and their fatty acid esters, and glycidyl fatty acid esters in food. EFSA Journal 14(5):4426, pp.159

13. Lewis S (2016). EFSA warns of MCPD health risks, particularly for children. Available at:

Page 38 Government 5 a day campaign

1 Ashfield-Watt P, Welch A, Godward S, Bingham S (2007). Effect of a pilot community intervention on fruit and vegetable intakes: use of FACET (Five a day community evaluation tool). Public Health Nutrition, 10, 671-680

2 Bond H (2014). British Dietetic Association. Retrieved from

3 Christian M, Evans C, Hancock N, Nykjaer C, Cade J (2013). Family meals can help children reach their 5 A Day: a cross-sectional survey of children’s dietary intake from London primary schools. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 67, 332-338

4 Crowe F, Roddam A, Key T, Appleby P, Overvad K et al (2011). Fruit and vegetable intake and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-heart study. European Heart Journal, 32, 1235-1243

5 Hackett F, Gibbon M, Stratton G, Hamill L (2002). Dietary intake of 9-10 year old and 11-12 year old children in Liverpool. Public Health Nutrition, 5, 449-455

6 Herbert G, Butler L, Kennedy O, Lobb A (2010). Young UK adults and the 5 A DAY campaign: perceived benefits and barriers of eating more fruits and vegetables. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 34, 657-664

7 Hughes R, Edwards K, Clarke G, Evans C, Cade J, Ransley J (2012). Childhood consumption of fruit and vegetables across England: a study of 2,309 6-7 year olds in 2007. British Journal of Nutrition, 108, 733-742

8 Knai C, Pomerleau J, Lock K, Mckee M (2006). Getting children to eat more fruit and vegetables: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 42, 85-95

9 Ohly H, Pealing J, Hayter A, Pettinger C, Pikhart H, Watt R, Rees G (2013). Parental food involvement predicts parent and child intakes of fruits and vegetables. Appetite, 69, 8-14

10 Oyebode O, Gordon-Dseagu V, Walker A, Mindel l J (2014). Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality: analysis of Health Survey for England data. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 68, 856-862

11 Public Health England. (2014). National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Retrieved from

12 Rolls B, Martin J, Tohill B (2004). What can intervention studies tell us about the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and weight management? Nutrition Reviews, DOI:

13 Williams C, Hayman L, Daniels S, Robinson T, Steinberger J, Paridon S, Bazzarre T (2002). Cardiovascular health in childhood. AHA Scientific Statement, 10, 143-160

Page 41 50 shades of skin

Information sources

Aguilar S, Wengreen HJ, Lefevre M (2014) Skin Carotenoids: A Biomarker of Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Children. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 114, 8, 1174-1180

Aguilar S, Wengreen HJ, Dew J (2015) Skin Carotenoid Response to a High-Carotenoid Juice in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 115, 11, 1771-1778

Chalé A, Chalé C (2016) Color by Numbers: When Population Skin Pigmentation is not Political but a Polytypical Evaluation Exercise to Measure Vitamin D, Diseases, and Skin Pigmentation. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116, 8, 1251-1256

Pezdirc K, Hutchesson MJ, Williams RL, Rollo ME, Burrows TL, Wood LG, Oldmeadow C, Collins CE (2016) Consuming High-Carotenoid Fruit and Vegetables Influences Skin Yellowness and Plasma Carotenoids in Young Women: A Single-Blind Randomised Crossover Trial. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116, 8, 1257-1265SACN (2016) Vitamin D and Health. Public Health England, London