October 17: Issue 128


1 MUST Nutritional Screening of Adults - a multidisciplinary responsibility. BAPEN Executive Summary (June 2012)

2 Development of a screening tool for assessing risk of undernutrition for patients in the community. Journal Human Nutrition & Dietetics (1998); 11 323-330

3 Nutrition support for adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition. NICE CG 32- 2006

4 MUST Explanatory Booklet; BAPEN (2011). ISBN 978-1-899467-71-6

5 Leistra et al (2013). Validity of nutritional screening with MUST and SNAQ in hospital outpatients. Eur J Clin Nut 2013

6 Pilgrim et al (2015). Measuring Appetite with the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire identifies hospitalised older people at risk of worse health outcomes. Journal of Nutrition Health and Ageing (2015)



1 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (2014). RCSLT Resource Manual for Commissioning and Planning Services for SLCN: Dysphagia

2 Mid Stafford Francis Report (2013). Available online at www.midstaffspublicinquiry.com/report

3 PrescQIPP Appropriate thickeners for dysphasia in adults. Bulletin No 100, May 2015. https://www.prescqipp.info/thickeners-for-dysphagia/category/169-thickeners-for-dysphagia

4 Penney B. Use of fluid thickener to reduce Dysphagia risk. Nursing Times 2014; 110 (12)16-18

5 National Patient Safety Agency, Dysphagia Diet Food Texture Descriptors (March 2012)

6 Cichero J et al (2013). The need for international terminology and definitions for texture modified foods and thickened liquids used in dysphagia management: Foundations of a Global Initiative. Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep, 1:280-291

7 IDDSI (2017). http://iddsi.org/framework/

8 Cichero J (2013). Thickening agents used for dysphagia management: effect on bioavailability of water, medication and feelings of satiety. Nutrition Journal 12:54

9 Niezgoda H, Miville A, Chambers LW, Keller HH. Issues and challenges of modified-texture foods in long-term care: a workshop report. Annals of Long-Term Care: Clinical Care and Aging. 2012; 20(7): 22-27


1 Excellence NIfHaC: Diagnosis and assessment of food allergy in children and young people in primary care and community settings. Walsh J, O'Flynn N (2011)Fiocchi A, Brozek J, Schunemann H, Bahna SL, von Berg A, Beyer K, Bozzola M, Bradsher J, Compalati E, Ebisawa M et al. World Allergy Organisation (WAO). Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow's Milk Allergy (DRACMA) Guidelines. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010, 21 Suppl 21:1-125

3 Venter C, Pereira B, Voigt K, Grundy J, Clayton CB, Higgins B, Arshad SH, Dean T: Prevalence and cumulative incidence of food hypersensitivity in the first 3 years of life. Allergy 2008, 63:354-359

4 Schoemaker AA, Sprikkelman AB, Grimshaw KE, Roberts G, Grabenhenrich L, Rosenfeld L, Siegert S, Dubakiene R, Rudzeviciene O, Reche M et al.: Incidence and natural history of challenge-proven cows' milk allergy in European children. EuroPrevall birth cohort. Allergy 2015, 70:963-972

5 Venter C, Brown T, Shah N, Walsh J, Fox AT: Diagnosis and management of non-IgE-mediated cows' milk allergy in infancy - a UK primary care practical guide. Clin Transl Allergy 2013, 3:23

6 Excellence NIfHaC: Cows' milk protein allergy in children. NICE: Clinical Knowledge Summaries. Edited by; 2015

7 Excellence NIfHaC: NICE: Quality standard for food allergy NICE Quality Standard 118. Edited by; 2016

8 Luyt D, Ball H, Makwana N, Green MR, Bravin K, Nasser SM, Clark AT, Standards of Care Committee of the British Society for A, Clinical I: BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of cows' milk allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 2014, 44:642-672.

9 Venter C, Brown T, Meyer R, Walsh J, Shah N, Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Chen TX, Fleischer DM, Heine RG, Levin M, Vieira MC, Fox AT: Better recognition, diagnosis and management of non-IgE-mediated cows' milk allergy in infancy: iMAP - an international interpretation of the MAP (Milk Allergy in Primary Care) guideline. Clin Transl Allergy 2017, 7:26


1) van Spronsen, Francjan J et al. Key European guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with phenylketonuria. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017; 5(9): 743-756

2) Singh RH, Rohr F, Frazier D et al. Recommendations for the nutrition management of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. Genetics in Medicine. 2014; 16(2): 121-131

3) Yano S, Moseley K, Bottiglieri T et al. Maternal Phenylketonuria International Collaborative Study revisited: evaluation of maternal nutritional risk factors besides phenylalanine for fetal congenital heart defects. J Inherit Metab Dis (2014) 37: 39

4) Eissier R, Nowak E, Assoun M et al. Maternal phenylketonuria: low phenylalaninemia might increase the risk of intra uterine growth retardation. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2012; 35: 993-999

5) Schwoerer JAS, Obernolte L, Van Calcar S et al. Use of Gastrostomy Tube to Prevent Maternal PKU Syndrome. JIMD Reports, 2012; 6: 15-20

6) Waisbren SE, Rohr F, Anastasoaie V et al. Maternal Phenylketonuria: Long-term outcomes in offspring and post-pregnancy maternal characteristics. JIMD Reports. 2015; 21: 23-33

7) IOM. Weight gain during pregnancy: re-examining the guidelines. Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US) and Committee to Re-examine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines; 2009

8) UK WHO Growth Chart 0-4yrs, RCPCH (2009). www.rcpch.ac.uk


1 Schwoerer J et al (2016). Successful pregnancy and delivery in a women with propionic acidaemia from the Amish community. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism reports. Jun 2; 8: 4-7

2 Pen (2016). Dietitians of Canada Multi fetal practice guidance summary .Practice Evidence in Nutrition. www.pennutrition.com/KnowledgePathway.aspx?kpid=13491&pqcatid=146&pqid=13522. Last accessed 20.7.17

3 World Health Organisation, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, United Nations University (2007). Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation (WHO Technical Report Series 935). Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition. World Health Organisation, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, United Nations University

4 Rasmussen KM and Yaktine AL (2009). Weight gain during pregnancy: re-examining the guidelines. Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US) and Committee to Re-examine IOM pregnancy weight guidelines. Washington (DC): National Academies press (US)

5 Baumgartner et al (2014). Proposed guidelines for the diagnosis and management of methylmalonic and propionic academia. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2014; 9: 130

6 Murphy (2015). Pregnancy in women with Inherited Metabolic Disease. Obstet Med June; 8(2) 61-67


1 Younossi ZM, Koenig AB, Abdelatif D et al (2016). Global epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Meta-analytic assessment of prevalence, incidence, and outcomes. Hepatology 64(1): 73-84. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26707365

2 NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) (2016). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): assessment and management www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng49

3 NICE CKS (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Clinical Knowledge Summary) (2016). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. https://cks.nice.org.uk/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld#!topicsummary

4 Oliveira CP, de Lima Sanches P, de Abreu-Silva EO, Marcadenti A (2016). Nutrition and physical activity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Diabetes Res. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4685119/

5 Paglialunga S and Clayton AD (2016). Clinical assessment of hepatic de novo lipogenesis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Lipids in Health and Disease 15: 159 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5027077/pdf/12944_2016_Article_321.pdf

6 Chalasani N, Younossi Z et al (2012). The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association. Hepatology. 55: 2005-23. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22488764

7 Sattar N, Forrest E, Preiss D (2014). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. BMJ, 349: g4596

8 Ahmed M (2015). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in 2015. World J Hepatol 7(11): 1450-9

9 National Statistics (2017). Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet. England 2017. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/613532/obes-phys-acti-diet-eng-2017-rep.pdf

10 Kim D and Kim WR (2017). Non-obese fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 15(4): 474-85. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27581063

11 Mosca A, Della Corte C et al (2016). Beverage consumption and paediatric NAFLD. Eat Weight Disord 21(4): 581-88

12 Haughton D, Stewart CJ, Day CP, Trenell M (2016). Gut microbiota and lifestyle interventions in NAFLD. Int J Mol Sci 17(4): 447. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27023533

13 Boursier J, Mueller O et al (2016). The severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with gut dysbiosis and shift in the metabolic function of the gut microbiota. Hepatology 63(3): 764-75. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26600078

14 Godos J, Federico A, Dallio M and Scazzina F (2016). Mediterranean diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: molecular mechanisms of protection. Int J Food Sci and Nutr 68: 18-27. www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09637486.2016.1214239?journalCode=iijf20

15 Ryan MC, Itsiopoulos C et al (2013). The Mediterranean diet improves hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol 59: 138-43. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4632797/pdf/ijms-16-25168.pdf

16 Katsagoni CN, Georgoulis M et al (2017). Effects of lifestyle interventions on clinical characteristics of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A meta-analysis. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental 68: 119-32. www.metabolismjournal.com/article/S0026-0495(16)30184-6/fulltext#s0090

17 Gupta V, Xian-Jun M, et al (2015). Oily fish, coffee and walnuts: Dietary treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 21(37): 10621-35. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4588084/

18 Parker HM, Johnson NA et al (2012). Omega-3 supplementation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hepatol 58(4): 944-51. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22023985/

19 Jegatheesan P, Bandt JP (2017). Fructose and NAFLS: The multifaceted aspects of fructose metabolism Nutrients 9(3): 230. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5372893/#B92-nutrients-09-00230

20 Mosca A, Nobili V et al (2017). Serum uric acid concentrations and fructose consumption are independently associated with NASH in children and adolescents. J Hepatology 66(5):1031-6. www.sciencedirect.com.knowledge.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S0168827817300028#b0130

21 Liu J, Xu C et al (2017). Relationship of serum uric acid level with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its inflammation progression in non-obese adults. Hepatology Research 47(3): E104-12. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/hepr.12734/full

22 Hernandez-Rodas MC, Valenzuala R, Videla LA (2015). Relevant aspects of nutritional and dietary interventions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Int J Mol Sci 16(10): 25168-98. www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/10/25168/htm

23 Kennedy OJ, Roderick P et al (2016). Systematic review with meta-analysis: coffee consumption and the risk of cirrhosis Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 43(5): 562-74. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apt.13523/full

24 Wijarnpreecha et al (2017). Coffee consumption and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 29(2): e8-e12. https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=27824642

25 Alferink LJM, Fittipaldi J et al (2017). Coffee and herbal tea consumption is associated with lower liver stiffness in the general population: The Rotterdam study J Hepatology 67(2): 339-48. www.journal-of-hepatology.eu/article/S0168-8278(17)30147-2/fulltext

26 Buss C, Valle-Tovo C et al (2014). Probiotics and synbiotics may improve liver aminotransferases levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients. Ann Hepatol 13(5): 482-8. www.annalsofhepatology.com/revista/numeros/2014/HP145-02-Probiotics%20(F_070814J)_PROTEGIDO.pdf

27 Liu ZL, Xie LZ, Zhu J, Li GQ, Grant SJ, Liu JP (2013a). Herbal medicines for fatty liver disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Aug 24; (8):CD009059 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23975682/

28 Liu Y, Dai M et al (2013b). Active smoking, passive smoking, and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A population-based study in China. J Epidemiol 23(2):115-21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23399520

29 Zein CO, Unalp A et al (2011). Smoking and severity of hepatic fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease J Hepatol 54(4): 753-9.  NHS Choices (2016). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) www.nhs.uk/conditions/fatty-liver-disease/Pages/Introduction.aspx











10 www.nhs.uk/Conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/Vitamins-minerals.aspx

11 www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/food-labelling.aspx

12 http://eatseasonably.co.uk/