October 2016 Issue 118



1. CPCAB, Counselling and Psychotherapy Central awarding Body, (2/5/2013) 2013-2014. Candidate guide level 3 Certificate in Counselling studies (CST-L3), qualification/learning aim number 600/5104/8. www.bacp.co.uk

2. Hindle L (2015). Dietitians as public health leaders in obesity. Dietetics Today, July 2015, pg 20

3. Turnbull L (2015). Obesity: A review of the situation in the UK. Complete Nutrition, Vol 7: No 2, June 2015, pg30-32

4. McLeod J (1997). An Introduction to Counselling, 2nd edition. Open University Press, Buckingham, UK

5. Thomas B and British Dietetic Association, (2001). 3rd edition. Manual of Dietetic practice. Blackwell Science, Oxford

6. Gable J (2008). Counselling skills for Dietitians. 2nd edition, Blackwell Science, Oxford

7. Allen R, Abrahams B and Stewart C (2015). Mindful eating groups: Supporting people living with obesity. Dietetics Today, December 2015, Pg 24-27

8. James O (2002). They F*** you up: How to survive family life. Bloomsbury publishing, London

9. Ellis A et al (1992). The art and science of rational eating. Barricade books, New Jersey

Further reading

  • Cooper Z, Fairburn C and Hawker D (2003). Cognitive behavioural treatment of obesity, a clinician’s guide. the Guilford press, New York
  • Hunt P and Hillsdon M (1996). Changing eating and exercise behaviours, a handbook for professionals. Blackwell publishing, Oxford
  • Sawkill S et al (2013). A thematic analysis of causes attributed to weight gain: a female slimmer’s perspective. Journal of human Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol 26, issue 1, pg 78-84
  • Hancock REE, Bonner G, Hollingdale R and Madden AM (2012). ‘If you listen to me properly, I feel good’: a qualitative examination of patient experiences of dietetic consultations. J Hum Nut Diet. 25, pg 275-284
  • Nash J (2013). Diabesity: What have emotions got to do with it? Diabetes in practice 2, pg 48-56



1 Cemark SA, Curtin C and Bandini LG (2010). Food selectivity and sensory sensitivity in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American dietetic association, vol 110, issue 2, Feb 2010, pp 238-246

2 Bandini LG, Anderson SE, Curtin C, Cemark SA, Whitney Evans E, Scampini R, Maslin M and Must A (2010). Food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing children. Journal of Pediatrics, vol 157, issue 2, pp 259-264

3 Matson JL and Fodstad JC (2009). The treatment of food selectivity and other feeding problems in children autism spectrum disorders. Research in autism spectrum disorders, vol 2, issue 2, pp 455-461

4 Nath S. Feeding problems in children with autism. www.iancommunity.org/SSC/feeding-problems-children-autism

5 Chaidez V, Hansen RL and Hertz-Picciotto I (2014). Gastrointestinal problems in children with autism, developmental delays or typical development. Journal of autism and development disorders, vol 44, issue, 5 pp 1117-1127

6 Lockner DW, Crowe TK and Skipper BJ (2008). Dietary intake and parents’ perception of mealtime behaviours. Journal of the American dietetic association, vol 108, issue, 8 pp 1360-1363

7 Sharp WG, Berry RC, McCracken C, Nuhu NN, Marvel E, Saulnier CE, Klin A, Jones W and Jaquess DL (2013). Feeding problems and nutrient intake in children with autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis and comprehensive review of the literature. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, vol 43, issue 9, pp 2159-2173

8 Zimmer MH, Hart LC, Manning-Courtney P, Murray DS, Bing NM and Summer S (2011). Food variety as a predictor of nutritional status among children with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, vol 42, issue 4, pp 549-556

9 Ibrahim SH, Voigt RG, Katusic SK, Weaver AL and Barbaresi WJ (2009). Incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism: a population study. Pediatrics, vol 124, issue 2, pp 34-36

10 Suarez MA, Nelson NW and Curtis AB (2014). Longitudinal follow-up of factors associated with food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, vol 18, no 8, pp 924-932

11 Schmitt L, Heiss CJ and Campbell EE (2008). A comparison of nutrient intake and eating behaviours of boys with and without autism. Topics in clinical nutrition, vol 23, issue 1, pp 23-31

12 Suarez MA, Nelson NW and Curtis AB (2012). Associations of physiological factors, age and sensory over-responsivity with food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders. The open journal of occupational therapy (http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=ojot)

13 Curtin C, Anderson SE, Must A and Bandini L (2010). The prevalence of obesity in children with autism: a secondary data analysis using nationally representative data from the national survey of children’s health. BMC Pediatrics, vol 10, issue 11 (https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2431-10-11)

14 Hyman SL, Stewart PA, Schmidt B, Cain U, Lamcke N, Foley JT, Peck R, Clemens T, Reynolds A, Johnson C, Handen B, Jones SJ, Courtney PM, Molloy C and Ng PK (2012). Nutrient intake from food in children with autism. Pediatrics, vol 150, issue 2, supplement 2

15 Valicenti-McDermott MD, McVicar K and Cohen HJ (2008). Gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder and language regression. Pediatric neurology, vol 39, Issue 6, pp 392-398

16 Tarbox J, Schiff A and Najdowski AC (2010). Parent implemented procedural modification of escape extinction in the treatment of food selectivity in a young child with autism. Education and treatment of children, vol 33, no 2, pp 223-234

17 Paul C, Williams KE, Riegel K and Gibbons B (2007). Combining repeated taste exposure and escape prevention: An intervention for the treatment of extreme food selectivity. Appetite, vol 49, Issue 3, pp 708-711

18 Levin L and Carr EG (2001). Food selectivity and problem behaviour in children with developmental disabilities. Behaviour modification, vol 25, no 3, pp 443-470



1. Fiocchi A et al. World Allergy Organisation (WAO). Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against cows’ milk allergy (DRACMA) Guidelines. Ped All Imm, 21 (suppl 21), 1-25, 2010

2. Bath SC, Steer CD, Golding J, et al. Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Lancet 2013; 382:331-7

3. World Health Organisation, United Nations Children's Fund & International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. A guide for programme managers 3rd ed. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2007 http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241595827_eng.pdf (accessed 24 July 2013)

4. World Health Organisation, United Nations Children's Fund & International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Indicators for the assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and their control programmes: Report of a Joint WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD Consultation, 3-5 November 1992. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 1993. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1993/WHO_NUT_93.1.pdf (accessed 6 December 2012)

5. Bates B, Lennox A, Prentice A, Bates C, Swan G, eds. National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Headline results from Years 1, 2 and 3 (combined) of the rolling programme (2008/2009-2010/11). Department of Health; 2012. http://transparency.dh.gov.uk/2012/07/25/ndns-3-years-report/ (accessed 30 November 2012)

6. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition; Statement on Iodine and Health, Feb 2014

7. Food Standards Agency. McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, Sixth summary edition. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry; 2002 ISBN 0-85404-428

8. Cheetham T, Plumb E, Callaghan J et al. Dietary restriction causing iodine-deficient goitre. Arch Dis Child 2015; 100: 784-786

Further Reading

  • Department of Health. Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients in the UK. Report of the panel on dietary reference values of the committee on medical aspects of food policy. Report on Health and Social Subjects, Vol 41, London: HMSO, 1991
  • Food allergy in children and young people NICE CG116 Guidelines RCPCH allergy pathways. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg116.
  • Meyer R, De Koker C, Dziubak R et al. A Practical Approach to vitamin and mineral supplementation in food allergic children. Clinical and Translational Allergy 2015; 5:11
  • BDA food facts iodine



1 Acosta P and Matalon KM (2010). Nutrition Management of Patients with Inherited Disorders of Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism in: Acosta P Nutrition Management; in Patients with Inherited Metabolic Disorders

2 Held P (2006). Disorders of Tyrosine Metabolism; Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 88 103-106

3 Chakrupani A, Gissen P and McKiernan P (2012). Disorders of Tyrosine Metabolism; in Saudubray JM, van den Berghe G, and Walter JH; Inborn Metabolic Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment, 5th Edn, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

4 Larochelle J et al (2012). Effect of nitisinone (NBTC) treatment on the clinical course of hepatorenal tyrosinaemia in Quebec; Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 107: 49-54

5 De Laet C et al (2013). Recommendations for the management of tyrosinaemia Type 1; Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases: 8: 8

6 Dixon M, MacDonald A, White F and Stafford J (2014). Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism, Organic Acidaemias and Urea Cycle Disorders; in Clinical Paediatric Dietetics; Ed Shaw V, 4th Ed, Wiley Blackwell, Oxford; 381-525

7 Barr DG, Kirk JM and Laing SC (1991). Outcome in tyrosinaemia Type II; Archives of Disease in Childhood 66: 1249-50

8 De Laet C et al (2011). Neuropsychological outcome of NTBC-treated patients with tyrosinaemia Type 1; Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 53: 962-964

9 Bilginsoy C, Waitzman N, Leonard CO and Ernst SL (2005). Living with Phenylketonuria: Perspectives of patients and their families. J Inherit Metab Dis; 28 639-649

10 Wilson CJ, Van Wyk KG, Leonard JV and Clayton PT (2000). Phenylalanine supplementation improves the phenylalanine profile in tyrosinaemia; Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 23: 677-683

11 Daly A et al (2012). Diurnal variation of phenylalanine concentrations in tyrosinaemia Type I: Should we be concerned? Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics 25: 111-116

12 Cerone R et al (2002). Pregnancy and tyrosinaemia Type II; Journal of Inherited Metabolic Diseases 25: 317-318



1. Rio A and Cawadias E (2007). Nutritional Advice and treatment by dietitians to patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/ motor neuron disease: a survey of current practice in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Canada. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 20; 3-13

2. NICE (2016). Motor neuron disease: assessment and management www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng42?unlid=7287371852016731143512 (accessed 05/08/16)

3. www.mndassociation.org/what-is-mnd/brief-guide-to-mnd/ (accessed 06/08/2016)

4. Daniel I, Greenwood BA (2013). Nutrition management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 28(3); 392-399

5. Kent A (2012). Motor neuron disease: an overview. Nursing Standard 26, 46, 48-57

6. Braun MM, Osecheck M, Joyce C (2012). Nutrition assessment and management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Physical Medicine Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 23; 751-771

7. Stavroulakis T, Walsh T, Shaw PJ, Mcdermott CJ. On behalf of the PROGAS Study (2013). Gastrostomy use in motor neuron Disease (MND): A review, meta-analysis and survey of current practice. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal degeneration 14: 96-104

8. Muscaritoli M, Kushta I, Molfino A, Inghilleri M, Sabetelli M, Rossi Fanelli F (2012). Nutritional and metabolic support in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nutrition 28: 959-966

9. Walshe M. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Neurodegenerative Disease. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research 2014; 3(10): 1265-1271

10. Stavroulakis T, Baird WO, Baxter SK et al (2016). Factors influencing decision-making in relation to timing of gastrostomy insertion in patients with motor neuron disease. BMJ supportive and Palliative care. 6; 52-59

11. National Patient Safety Agency (2011). Dysphagia Diet Descriptors. Accessed online at: www.thenacc.co.uk/assets/downloads/170/Food%20Descriptors%20for%20Industry%20Final%20-%20USE.pdf (06/08/16)

12. NICE (2006). Nutrition support for adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition



1 NICE Guidelines Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management, August 2015

2 Dr Berstein’s Diabetes Solution (2015). Available at www.diabetes-book.com [Accessed June 2016]

3 Ironguides (2015). Available at www.ironguides.net/triathlon-on-a-low-carb-high-fat-diet/ [Accessed June 2016]

4 The Science of Human Potential (2014). Ironman Triathlon on LCHF with Type 1 Diabetes. Available at: https://profgrant.com/2014/01/30/ironman-triathlon-on-lchf-with-type-1-diabetes/ [Accessed May 2016]

5 Spritzler F. A Low-Carbohydrate, Whole-Foods Approach to Managing Diabetes and Prediabetes. American Diabetes Association's Diabetes Spectrum, November 2012

6 Schofield G, Henderson G, Thornley S and Crofts C. Very low-carbohydrate diets in the management of diabetes revisited. New Zealand Medical Journal, Viewpoint, 1 April, 2016. Vol 129 No 1432

7 ABC (2013). Low carbohydrate diet to manage Type 1 diabetes. Available at www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/healthreport/low-carbohydrate-diet-to-manage-diabetes/4880362 [Accessed June 2016]

8 Nielsen JV, JÓ§nsson E and Ivarsson A. A Low Carbohydrate Diet in Type 1 Diabetes: Clinical Experience - A Brief Report. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 110 (3): 267-273, 2005

9 Nielsen JV, Gando C, JÓ§nsson E and Paulsson C. Low carbohydrate diet in Type 1 diabetes, long-term improvement and adherence: A clinical audit. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2012, 4:23

10 Krebbs J, Parry Strong A, Cressell P, Reynolds A, Hanna A, Haeusler S. A randomised control trial of the feasibility of a low carbohydrate diet vs standard carbohydrate counting in adults with Type 1 diabetes taking body weight into account. Asia Pacific Journal Clinical Nutrition 2016; 25(1): 78-84

11 Cresswell P, Krebbs J, Gilmour J, Hanna A, Parry Strong A. From pleasure to chemistry: the experience of carbohydrate counting with and without carbohydrate restriction for people with Type 1 diabetes. Journal of Primary Health Care. 2015; 7 (4): 291-298



1 The Vegan Society (2016). Available at: www.vegansociety.com/whats-new/news/find-out-how-many-vegans-are-great-britain (Accessed: 12th July 2016)

2 Popular Nutrition Trends for 2016 (2015). Today’s Dietitian. Available at: www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/1215p26.shtml (Accessed: 12th July 2016)

3 Dinu M, Gensini G, Casini A, Sofi F (2016). Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies, Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. Available at: www.researchgate.net/profile/Francesco_Sofi/publication/293329136_Vegetarian_vegan_diets_and_multiple_health_outcomes_a_systematic_review_with_meta-analysis_of_observational_studies/links/56c7474e08ae5488f0d2c8f4.pdf

4 Springmann M, Godfrey CJH, Raynar M and Scarborough P (2016). Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change co-benefits of dietary change, Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (13), 4146-4151

5 Department of Health (2016). The Eatwell Guide. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-eatwell-guide (Accessed: 12th July 2016)

6 Cancer Research UK (2015). Processed meat and cancer - what you need to know. Available at: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/10/26/processed-meat-and-cancer-what-you-need-to-know/ (Accessed: 12th July 2016)

7 Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J et al. (2013). Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study-2. JAMA Intern Med. 173(13): 1230-1238.

8 Crowe FL, Steur M, Allen NE, Appleby PN, Travis RC, Key TJ (2011). Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study. Public Health Nutr. 14(2): 340-346. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/97/3/597.long

9 Tonstad S, Butler T, Yan R, Fraser GE (2009). Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 32(5): 791-796

10 Bradbury KE, Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Schmidt JA, Travis RC, Key TJ (2014). Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 68(2): 178-183

11 Tantamango-Bartley Y, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G (2013). Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 22(2): 286-294

12 Key TJ, Appleby PN, Crowe FL, Bradbury KE, Schmidt JA, Travis RC (2014). Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians and 2246 vegans. Am J Clin Nutr. 100(Supplement 1): 378S-385S

13 Newby PK, Tucker KL and Wolk A (2005). Risk of overweight and obesity among semi-vegetarian, lacto-vegetarian and vegan women. American Society for Clinical Nutrition. 81 (6) 1267-1274

14 Craig WJ (2009). Health effects of vegan diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (5) 1627s-1633s

15 Vegan Society - Health (2016). Available at: www.vegansociety.com/go-vegan/health (Accessed: 12th July 2016)

16 Department of Health (2016). The NHS Choices - Vegan Diet. Available at: www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Vegetarianhealth/Pages/Vegandiets.aspx (Accessed: 12th July 2016)

17 Bates B, Lennox A, Prentice A et al (2014). The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Results from Years 1, 2, 3 and 4 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009-2011/2012). The Stationary office, London. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/news/new-national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-shows-uk-population-is-eating-too-much-sugar-saturated-fat-and-salt

18 SACN (2015). Draft Vitamin D and health report. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition Available at: /www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/447403/Executive_Summary.pdf