October issue 108


Pg 8 - Reflections on nutrition and 'One chance to get it right'
1      Leadership Alliance for the Care of the Dying People (2014a). One chance to get it right. www.gov.uk/government/One_chance_to_get_it_right
2      Neuberber J (2013). More Care, Less Pathway: a Review of the Liverpool Care Pathway. www.gov.uk/government/publications/review-of-liverpool-care-pathway
3      Satter E (2015). Ellyn Satter's Division of responsibilty in feeding. www.ellynsatterinstitute.org/dor/divisionofresponsibilityinfeeding
4      CWT (2011). Eating well: supporting older people with dementia. www.cwt.org.uk/EW-Old-Dementia-Practical-Resource

Pg 11 - Coeliac disease and other conditions related to gluten sensitivity
1      Coeliac UK (2015). www.coeliac.org.uk/coeliac-disease/about-coeliac-disease-and-dermatitis-herpetiformis [accessed July 15th 2015]

2      Gujural N et al (2014). Celiac disease prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. World Gastroenterol. Nov 14 18 (42) 6032-6059
3      Coeliac UK (2015). www.coeliac.org.uk/coeliac-disease/about-coeliac-disease-and-dermatitis-herpetiformis [accessed July 14th 2015]
4      International Expert Meeting on Gluten Sensitivity (2012). Munich 1-2 December
5      International Expert Meeting on Gluten Sensitivity (2014). Salerno 5-7 October
6      NHS (2014). accessed 6 Oct 2014 www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Coeliac-disease/Pages/Symptoms.aspx
7      NICE (2009). Coeliac disease recognition and assessment. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg86 [accessed July 13 2015]

8      Anaphylaxis Campaign (2014). www.anaphylaxis.org.uk/what-is-anaphylaxis/knowledgebase/wheat-allergy--the-facts?page=12 [accessed 6 Oct 2014]
9      IBS network (2014). www.theibsnetwork.org/the-self-care-plan/diet/is-it-food-intolerance-or-the-intolerant-gut/gluten-sensitivity/ [accessed 6 Oct 2014]
10    Low-fodmap diet (2014). www.ibsgroup.org/brochures/fodmap-intolerances.pdf [6 Oct 2014]
11    Holmes G (2013). Non Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. Summer 6 (3) 115-119
12    Skypala I (2014). www.nhs.uk/Livewell/digestive-health/Pages/cutting-out-bread.aspx [accessed 6 Oct 2014]
13    Coeliac UK fact sheet (2014). www.gluten.net/resources/gluten-sensitivities/ [accessed 6 Oct 2014]
14    Statistics (2014). http://glutenintoleranceschool.com/gluten-intolerance-statistics/ [accessed 6 Oct 2014]
15    Genuis SJ, Lobo RA (2014). Gluten sensitivity presenting as a neuropsychiatric disorder Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2014:293206
16    Sapone A et al (2012). Spectrum of gluten-related disorder: consensus on new nomenclature and classification. BMC Medicine 2012; 10:13 www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/13
17    Ataxia UK (2015). https://www.ataxia.org.uk/ataxia-types1 [accessed 15th July 2015]

18    Hadjivassiliou M et al (2010). Gluten sensitivity from gut to brain. Lancet Neurology Vol 9 no 3 March 2010 318-330
19    Catassi C et al (2013). Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders. Nutrients. 2013 Oct; 5(10): 3839-3853. Published online 2013 Sep 26
20    Isherwood E, Thomas K, Spicer B (2011). Professional Consensus Statement Dietary Management of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Dietitians working in Autism supported by the British Dietetic Association
21    Food Information Regulations (2011). Food Standards Agency www.food.gov.uk/enforcement/regulation/fir

Pg 19 - Crohn’s disease and dietary treatment, where are we now?
1      Julie Thompson (2013). Crohn’s disease and dietary treatment where are we now? Network Health Dietitians Volume 3.04 - February 28th
2      C Mowat, A Cole, Al Windsor, T Ahmad, I Arnott, R Driscoll, S Mitton, T Orchard, M Rutter, L Younge, C Lees, G Ho, J Satsangi, S Bloom, on behalf of the IBD Section of the British Society of Gastroenterology (2008). Guidelines for the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults Gut 2011; 60:571e607. doi:10.1136/gut.2010.224154

3      K Vagianos, S Bector, J McConnell, CN Bernstein (2007). Nutrition Assessment of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition; 31, 4pg. 311
4      IBD Standards Working Group (2014). Quality care: Service standards for the healthcare of people who have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Available at www.rcplondon.ac.uk/projects/inflammatory-bowel-disease-programme
5      Bryant RV, Ooi S, Schultz CG, Goess C, Grafton CR, Hughes J, Lim A, Bartholomeusz FD, Andrews JM (2015). Low muscle mass and sarcopenia: common and predictive of osteopenia in inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2015; 41: 895-906
6      Zachos M, Tondeur M and Griffiths AM (2007). Enteral nutritional therapy for induction of remission in Crohn's disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
7      Nguyen DL, Palmer LB, Nguyen ET, McClave SA, Martindale RG, Bechtold ML (2015). Specialised enteral nutrition therapy in Crohn’s disease patients on maintenance infliximab therapy: a meta-analysis. Ther Adv Gastroenterol 2015, Vol. 8(4) 168-175
8      Akobeng AK, Thomas AG (2007). Enteral nutrition for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
9      Dear KLE, Compston JE, Hunter JO (2001). Treatment for Crohn’s disease that minimises steroid doses are associated with a reduced risk of osteoporosis. Clinical Nutrition 20(6) 541-546
10    J Lee, R Allen, S Ashley, S Becker, P Cummins, A Ghadamosi, O Gooding, J Huston, J Le Couteur, D O’Sullivan, S Wilson, MCE Lomer (2014). Evidence-based practice guidelines for the dietetic management of Crohn’s disease in adults. British Dietetic Association, Birmingham
11    Woolner JT, Parker TJ, Kirby GA and Hunter JO (1998). The development and evaluation of a diet for maintaining remission in Crohn's disease. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 11, 1-11
12    Kakodkar S, Farooqui AJ, Mikolaitis SL, MS, RDN, Mutlu EA (2015). The Specific Carbohydrate Diet for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case Series, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
13    Anderson JL, Hedin CR, Benjamin JL, Koutsoumpas A, Ng SC, Hart AL, Forbes A, Stagg AJ, Lindsay JO, Whelan K (2015). Dietary intake of inulin-type fructans in active and inactive Crohn's disease and healthy controls: a case-control studyJ Crohn’s Colitis Jul 27 pii: jjv136. [Epub ahead of print]
14    CRH Hedin, M Mullard, E Sharratt, C Jansen, JD Sanderson, P Shirlaw, LC Howe, S Djemal, AJ Stagg, JO Lindsay, K Whelan (2010). Probiotic and Prebiotic Use in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control Study, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Volume 16, Number 12
15    AD Butterworth, AJ Thomas, AK Akobeng (2008). Probiotics for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease. The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
16    Rolfe VE, Fortun PJ, Hawkey CJ, Bath-Hextall FJ (2008). Probiotics for maintenance of remission in Crohn’s disease (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
17    Benjamin JL, Hedin CRH, Andreas Koutsoumpas A, Ng SC, McCarthy NE, Hart AL, Kamm MA, Sanderson JD, Knight SC, Forbes A, Stagg AJ, Whelan K, Lindsay JO (2011). Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fructo-oligosaccharides in active Crohn’s disease, Gut
18    Gearry RB, Irving PM, Barrett JS, Nathan DM, Shepherd SJ and Gibson PR (2009). Reduction of dietary poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) improves abdominal symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohn's Colitis 3,8-14
19    Brotherton CS, Taylor AG, Bourguignon C, Anderson JG (2014). A High Fibre Diet May Improve Bowel Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Crohn’s Disease Gastroenterol Nurs 37(3): 206-216

Pg 23 - Malabsorption: An overview
1      Owens SR, Greenson JK. The pathology of malabsorption: current concepts. Histopathology. 2007 Jan. 50(1): 64-82

2      Potter GD. Bile acid diarrhea. Dig Dis. 1998 Mar-Apr. 16(2): 118-24
3      Savvidou S, Goulis J, Gantzarou A, Ilonidis G. Pneumobilia, chronic diarrhoea, vitamin K malabsorption: a pathognomonic triad for cholecystocolonic fistulas. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Aug 28. 15(32): 4077-82
4      Schiller LR. Diarrhoea and malabsorption in the elderly. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2009 Sep. 38(3): 481-502
5      Juckett G, Trivedi R. Evaluation of chronic diarrhoea. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Nov 15. 84(10): 1119-26
6      Holt PR. Diarrhoea and malabsorption in the elderly. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2001 Jun. 30(2): 427-44
7      Bai JC. Malabsorption syndromes. Digestion. 1998 Aug. 59(5): 530-46
8      Born P, Sekatcheva M, Rosch T et al. Carbohydrate malabsorption in clinical routine: a prospective observational study. Hepatogastroenterology. 2006 Sep-Oct. 53(71): 673-7
9      Potter GD. Bile acid diarrhoea. Dig Dis. 1998 Mar-Apr. 16(2): 118-24
10    British Society of Gastroenterology. Tests for malabsorption. Available at: www.bsg.org.uk/pdf_word_docs/malabsorbtion.pdf <accessed 15/09/15>
11    University Hospitals Coventry and Warwick NHS Trust. Bile Acid Malabsorption. Available at: www.uhcw.nhs.uk/bam/what-is-bam <accessed 15/09/15>
12    Ruiz Jr AR. Overview of Malabsorption. Available at: www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/malabsorption-syndromes/overview-of-malabsorption <accessed 15/09/15>
13    Crothers K. The management of Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer. CN Focus. 2015 June. 7 (2): 14-16
14    World Gastroenterology Organisation. Prebiotics and probiotics 2011. Available at www.worldgastroenterology.org/UserFiles/file/guidelines/probiotics-english-2011.pdf <accessed 15/09/15>
15    Smart KM, Alex G, Hardikar W. Feeding the child with liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;26(5): 810-815
16    Shaw V (ed). Clinical Paediatric Dietetics (4th ed). 2015; 292-301

Pg 28 - Probiotics and the Infant Gut
1      Aziz Q, Doré J, Emmanuel A, Guarner Fand Quigley EMM (2013). Gut microbiota and gastrointestinal health: current concepts and future directions. Neurogastroenterology & Motility25(1), 4-15

2      Bengmark S (1998). Ecological control of the gastrointestinal tract: the role of probiotic flora. Gut, 42: 2-7
3      Hawrelak JA, Myers SP (2004). The causes of intestinal dysbiosis: a review. Altern Med Rev. 9(2): 180-97
4      Biagi E, Candela M, Fairweather-Tait S, Franceschi C, Brigidi P (2012). Ageing of the human metaorganism: the microbial counterpart. Age. 34(1): 247-267
5      Song SJ, Dominguez-Bello M G and Knight R (2013). How delivery mode and feeding can shape the bacterial community in the infant gut. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 185(5), 373-374
6      Grölund MM, Lehtonen OP, Eerola E and Kero P (1999). Fecal microflora in healthy infants born by different methods of delivery: permanent changes in intestinal flora after cesarean delivery. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, 28(1), 19-25
7      Biasucci G, Rubini M, Riboni S, Morelli L, Bessi E and Retetangos C (2010). Mode of delivery affects the bacterial community in the newborn gut. Early human development, 86(1), 13-15
8      Gregory KE (2011). Microbiome aspects of perinatal and neonatal health. The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing, 25(2), 158
9      Hyde MJ and Modi N (2012). The long-term effects of birth by caesarean section: the case for a randomised controlled trial. Early human development, 88(12), 943-949
10    Salminen S, Bouley C, Boutron-Ruault MC, Cummings JH, Franck A, Gibson GR, Isolauri E, Moreau MC, Roberfroid M, Rowland I (1998). Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function. British Journal of Nutrition. 80 (S1): S147-S171
11    Moreau MC, Coste M (1993). Immune responses to dietary protein antigens. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. 74, 22-57
12    Drasar BS, Barrow PA (1985). Intestinal Microbiology. Van Norstrand Reinhold, Wokingham, England (no. 10)
13    Strachan DP (1989). Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. British Medical Journal (BMJ); 299:1259-1260
14    Joint FAO/WHO Working Group on Evaluation of Probiotic (2002). Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food (London Ontario, Canada). Food and Agriculture Oganisation of the UN/World Health Organisation. ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/esn/food/wgreport2.pdf
15    Cruchet S, Furnes R, Maruy A, Hebel E, Palacios J, Medina F and Zablah, RA (2015). The Use of Probiotics in Pediatric Gastroenterology: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations by Latin-American Experts. Pediatric Drugs, 1-18
16    Sadeghzadeh M, Rabieefar A, Khoshnevisasl P, Mousavinasab N and Eftekhari K (2014). The Effect of Probiotics on Childhood Constipation: A Randomised Controlled Double Blind Clinical Trial. International journal of pediatrics 2014
17    Korterink JJ, Ockeloen L, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM, Hilbink M and Deckers‐Kocken JM (2014). Probiotics for childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: a systematic review and meta‐analysisActa Paediatrica, 103(4), 365-372
18    Sung V, Collett S, de Gooyer T, Hiscock H, Tang M and Wake M (2013). Probiotics to prevent or treat excessive infant crying: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA pediatrics, 167(12), 1150-1157
19    Kianifar H, Ahanchian H, Grover Z, Jafari S, Noorbakhsh Z, Khakshour A and Kiani, M (2014). Synbiotic in the management of infantile colic: A randomised controlled trial. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 1440-1754
20    Kim NY, Ji GE. 2012. Effects of probiotics on the prevention of atopic dermatitis. Korean J Pediatr, 55: 193-201
21    Farid R, Jabbari F, Ahanchian H and Moghiman T (2010). Clinical and immunological Effect of Probiotic in childhood Atopic Dermatitis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology,125(2), AB93
22    Kim JY, Kwon JH, Ahn SH, Lee SI, Han YS, Choi YO and Ji GE (2010). Effect of probiotic mix (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus) in the primary prevention of eczema: a double‐blind, randomised, placebo‐controlled trial. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology,21(2p2), e386-e393
23    Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H, Kero P, Koskinen P and Isolauri E (2001). Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet, 357(9262), 1076-1079
24    Kukkonen K, Savilahti E, Haahtela T, Juntunen-Backman K, Korpela R, Poussa T and Kuitunen M (2007). Probiotics and prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in the prevention of allergic diseases: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 119(1), 192-198
25    Pelucchi C, Chatenoud L, Turati F, Galeone C, Moja L, Bach JF and La Vecchia C (2012). Probiotics supplementation during pregnancy or infancy for the prevention of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis. Epidemiology, 23(3), 402-414
26    Kim HJ, Kim HY, Lee SY, Seo JH, Lee E and Hong SJ (2013). Clinical efficacy and mechanism of probiotics in allergic diseases. Korean journal of pediatrics, 56(9), 369-376
27    Wassenberg J, Nutten S, Audran R, Barbier N, Aubert V, Moulin J and Spertini, F (2011). Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei ST11 on a nasal provocation test with grass pollen in allergic rhinitis. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 41(4), 565-573
28    Rautava S, Salminen S and Isolauri E (2009). Specific probiotics in reducing the risk of acute infections in infancy - a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. British journal of nutrition, 101(11), 1722-1726
29    Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Pönkä A, Meurman JH, Poussa T, Näse L and Korpela R (2001). Effect of long-term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. Bmj, 322(7298), 1327

Pg 33 - Nutritional approaches to growth faltering
1      Piwoz E et al (2012). Promoting healthy growth: what are the priorities for research and action? Adv Nutr 3(2):234-41

2      Fink Gand Rockers PC(2014). Childhood growth, schooling, and cognitive development: further evidence from the Young Lives study. Am J Clin Nutr 100(1):182-8
3      Goulet O (2010). Growth faltering: setting the scene. Eur J Clin Nutr 64 (Suppl 1):S2-4
4      Sullivan PB and Goulet O (2010). Growth faltering: how to catch up? Eur J Clin Nutr 64 (Suppl 1):S15      Prentice AM et al (2013). Growth faltering in low-income countries. World Rev Nutr Diet. 106:90-9
6      Poindexter B (2014). Approaches to growth faltering. World Rev Nutr Diet. 110:228-38
7      Saari A et al (2015). Systematic growth monitoring for the early detection of celiac disease in children. JAMA Pediatr 169(3):e1525
8      Garza C and de Onis M (2004). Rationale for developing a new international growth reference. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 25(1): S5-14
9      International Paediatric Association (2006). International Pediatric Association Endorsement: The New WHO Growth Standards for Infants and Young Children. Available at: www.who.int/nutrition/media_page/en/
10    Foote JM (2014). Optimising linear growth measurement in children. J Pediatr Health Care 28(5):413-9

11    Cormack BEand Bloomfield FH (2013). Increased protein intake decreases postnatal growth faltering in ELBW babies. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 98(5):F399-404
12    Miller Jet al (2012). Effect of increasing protein content of human milk fortifier on growth in preterm infants born at <31 wk gestation: a randomised controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 95(3):648-55
13    Akalu G et al (2010). The effectiveness of quality protein maize in improving the nutritional status of young children in the Ethiopian highlands. Food Nutr Bull 31(3):418-30
14    Maleta KM et al (2015). Provision of 10-40 g/d Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements from 6 to 18 Months of Age Does Not Prevent Linear Growth Faltering in Malawi. J Nutr. 145(8):1909-15
15    van der Merwe LF et al (2013). Long-chain PUFA supplementation in rural African infants: a randomised controlled trial of effects on gut integrity, growth and cognitive development.Am J Clin Nutr 97(1):45-57
16    Williams EA et al (2007). A double-blind, placebo-controlled, glutamine-supplementation trial in growth-faltering Gambian infants. Am J Clin Nutr 86(2):421-7
17    Pham VP et al (2012). A six-month intervention with two different types of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods had distinct short- and long-term effects on linear and ponderal growth of Vietnamese infants.J Nutr142(9):1735-40
18    Hop le T and Berger J (2005). Multiple micronutrient supplementation improves anemia, micronutrient nutrient status and growth of Vietnamese infants: double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. J Nutr 135(3):660S-665S
19    Dijkhuizen MA et al (2008). Zinc supplementation improved length growth only in anemic infants in a multi-country trial of iron and zinc supplementation in South-East Asia. J Nutr 138(10):1969-75
20    López de Romaña G (2005). Efficacy of multiple micronutrient supplementation for improving anemia, micronutrient status, growth and morbidity of Peruvian infants. J Nutr 135(3):646S-652S
21    Untoro Jet al (2005). Multiple micronutrient supplements improve micronutrient status and anemia but not growth and morbidity of Indonesian infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Nutr 135(3):639S-645S
22    Clarke SEet al (2007). Randomised comparison of a nutrient-dense formula with an energy-supplemented formula for infants with faltering growth. J Hum Nutr Diet 20(4):329-39
23    Willows ND et al (2011). Dietary inadequacy is associated with anemia and suboptimal growth among preschool-aged children in Yunnan Province, China. Nutr Res 31(2):88-96
24    Gough EK et al (2015). Linear growth faltering in infants is associated with Acidaminococcus sp. and community-level changes in the gut microbiota. Microbiome 3:24
25    Turner PC et al (2007). Aflatoxin exposure in utero causes growth faltering in Gambian infants. Int J Epidemiol 36(5):1119-25
26     Koletzko Bet al (2014). Regulation of early human growth: impact on long-term health. Ann Nutr Metab 65(2-3):101-9

Pg 38 - Health benefits of oils rich in omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids
1      EFSA (2010). Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference values for fat including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids and cholesterol. EFSA Journal 8(3) 14612      Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee; Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (2015). www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report
3      Community list of claims: http://ec.europa.eu/nuhclaims
4      Public Health England, Food Standards Agency, 2014. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Results from Years 1, 2, 3 and 4 combined of the rolling programme (2008/9-2011-12)

5      Betancor et al (2015). A nutritionally-enhanced oil from transgenic Camelina sativa effectively replaces fish oil as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid for fish. Scientific Reports. 5: 8104 | DOI: 10.1038/srep08104

Pg 44 - Benefits of iron for sport and exercise
1      Thomas B and Bishop J (2007). Manual of Dietetic Practice. 4th Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing

2      Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2010). Iron and Health. London: TSO
3      www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemochromatosis/training/pathophysiology/iron_cycle_popup.htm
4      National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2013). http://cks.nice.org.uk/anaemia-iron-deficiency#!diagnosisadditional:1/-487719
5      Peeling P et al. Athletic induced iron deficiency: new insights into the role of inflammation, cytokines and hormones. Eur J Appl Physiol 103: 381-91

6      Bates B et al (2014). National Diet and Nutrition Survey: rolling programme years 1-4. www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-results-from-years-1-to-4-combined-of-the-rolling-programme-for-2008-and-2009-to-2011-and-2012
7      Buratti P et al (2015). Recent advances in iron metabolism: relevance for health, exercise and performance. Med Sci Sports Exer 47: 1596-1604

8      Oexle H et al (1999). Iron dependent changes in cellular energy metabolism: influence on citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1413: 99-107
9      Jeukendrup A and Gleeson M (2010). Sport Nutrition. 2nd Edition. Leeds: Human Kinetics
10    Pasricha SR et al (2014). Iron supplementation benefits physical performance in women of reproductive age: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr 144: 906-14
11    Beard J and Tobin B (2000). Iron status and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 72: 594S-97S
12    Zourdos MC et al (2015). A brief review: the implications of iron supplementation for marathon runners on health and performance. J Strength Cond Res 29: 559-65
13    American College of Sports Medicine (2009). Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Ex 109: 709-28
14    Lyle RM et al (1992). Iron status in exercising women: the effect of oral iron therapy vs increased consumption of muscle foods. Am J Clin Nutr 56: 1049-55
15    European Food Safety Authority (2015). www.efsa.europa.eu/en/consultationsclosed/call/150526
16    Department of Health (1991). Dietary Reference Values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom. London: TSO

17    EU Health Claims register (2015). http://ec.europa.eu/nuhclaims/resources/docs/euregister.pdf