June 16: Issue 115


1 Ventura AK and Mennella JA (2011). Innate and learned preferences for sweet taste during childhood. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14(4): 379-84

2 Tordoff MG and Sandell MA (2009). Vegetable bitterness is related to calcium content. Appetite 52(2): 498-504

3 Barends C et al (2014). Effects of starting weaning exclusively with vegetables on vegetable intake at the age of 12 and 23 months. Appetite 81: 193-9

4 Coulthard H et al (2014). Exposure to vegetable variety in infants weaned at different ages. Appetite 78: 89-94

5 Caton SJ et al (2013). Repetition counts: repeated exposure increases intake of a novel vegetable in UK preschool children compared to flavour-flavour and flavour-nutrient learning. Br J Nutr 109(11): 2089-97

6 Ahern SM et al (2014). The root of the problem: increasing root vegetable intake in preschool children by repeated exposure and flavour-flavour learning. Appetite 80: 154-60

7 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2015). Carbohydrates and Health. TSO: London

8 Bates et al (2014). National Diet and Nutrition Survey - Results from Years 1, 2, 3 and 4 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009-2011/2012). PHE: London

9 Hetherington MM et al (2015). A step-by-step introduction to vegetables at the beginning of complementary feeding. The effects of early and repeated exposure. Appetite 84: 280-90

10 Cornwell TB and McAlister AR (2013). Contingent choice. Exploring the relationship between sweetened beverages and vegetable consumption. Appetite 62: 203-8

11 Public Health England (2016). The Eatwell Guide. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-eatwell-guide

12 World Health Organisation (2016). Report of the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. WHO: Geneva


1 Foresight. Tackling Obesities: Future Choices-Project Report 2nd Edition. Government Office for Science. 2007. www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/287937/07-1184x-tackling-obesities-future-choices-report.pdf (Accessed April 2016)

2 Health and Social Care Information Centre. Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet. England 2015. www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB16988/obes-phys-acti-diet-eng-2015.pdf (accessed April 2016)

3 Mintel 2014. www.mintel.com/press-centre/social-and-lifestyle/dieting-in-2014-you-are-not-alone (Accessed April 2016)

4 Kopelman P. Health Risks Associated with Overweight and Obesity. Short Science Review. Foresight Tackling Obesities: Future Choices. Obesity Reviews, 2007: 8 9(s1):13-17

5 National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. Weight Management: Lifestyle sources for overweight or obese adults (PH53) May 2014. www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph53 (Accessed April 2016)

6 SIGN 115. Management of Obesity. A managed clinical guideline. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network; Edinburgh, Scotland, (2010). www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign115.pdf (Accessed April 2016)

7 McCombie L, Lean MEJ, Haslam D. On behalf of the Counterweight Research Group. Effective UK Weight Management Services for Adults. Clinical Obesity 2012; 2(3-4) p96-102

8 Mulvihill M, Quigley R. The management of obesity and overweight: an analysis of reviews of diet, physical activity and behavioural approaches. Health Development Agency 2003. London

9 Laws R: Counterweight Project Team. Current approaches to obesity management in UK primary care: The Counterweight Programme. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004: 17; 183-90

10 Truby H, Baic S, DeLooy A, Fox KR, Livingstone MBE, Logan CM, Macdonald IA, Morgan LM, Taylor MA, Millward J. Randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss programmes in the UK: initial findings from the BBC ‘diet trials’. BMJ 2006: 332; 1309-14

11 Rolland C, Hession M, Murray S, Wise A, Broom I. Randomised clinical trial of standard dietary/treatment versus a low carbohydrate/high protein diet or the Lighter Life Programme in the management of obesity. Journal of Diabetes 1 (2009) 207-217

12 Jolly K, Lewis A, Beach J, Denley J, Deeks J, Daley A, Aveyard P. Comparison of range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: Lighten Up randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2011: 343; d6500

13 Dixon K, Shcerba S, Kipping RR. Weight loss from three commercial providers of NHS primary care slimming on referral in North Somerset service evaluation. J. Public Health 2012: 34(4); 555-61

14 Jebb SA, Ahern AL, Olson A, Aston LM, Holzapfel C, Stoll J, Amann-Gassner U, Simpson AE, Fuller NR, Pearson S, Lau NS, Mander AP, Hauner H, Caterson ID. Primary care referral to a commercial provider for weight loss treatment versus standard care: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 2011; 2011: 378 p 1485-1492

15 Heitman BL, Garby L. Patterns of long-term weight changes in overweight developing Danish men and women aged between 30 and 60 years. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999; 23: 1074-8

16 Counterweight Project Team (2008). Evaluation of the Counterweight Programme for obesity management in primary care: a starting point for continuous improvement. Br J Gen Pract 2008; 58: 548-554

17 Counterweight Project Team. The Implementation of the Counterweight Programme in Scotland, UK. Family Practice 2012; 29: i139-i144

18 Jolly K and Aveyard P. Provision of commercial weight management programmes. The Lancet 378; 9801: 1444-1445

19 www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts.faddiets.pdf (Accessed Apr 2016)


1 Holmes S (2011). Importance of nutrition in palliative care of patients with chronic disease. Primary Health Care. 21, 6, 32-38

2 Pinto F et al. The Dietitian’s Role in Palliative Care: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Scope and Emerging Competencies for Dietitians in Palliative Care. Journal Palliative Care Medicine. 2016

3 Friedrich L. End of Life Nutrition: Is Tube Feeding the Solution? Annals of Long Term care. 2013


1. http://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(14)60976-9/pdf 

2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3145058/

3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4425030/

4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25415497

5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23384445

6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26306709

7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12382680

8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16696665

9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4268643/

10. http://www.naturopathiccurrents.com/article/probiotics

11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22173777

12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26826428

13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25599866

14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8889911

15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290641

16. http://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/71667

17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26148916

18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26290009

19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24695887

20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25115795

21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4268643/

22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4239494/


1 Shaw V (2015). Disorders of Mitochondrial energy metabolism, lipid metabolism and other disorders, Clinical Paediatric Dietetics 4th Edition. Chapter 19. Wiley Blackwell

2 Schatz A and Ensenauer R (2010). The clinical manifestation of MCAD deficiency: challenges towards adulthood in the screened population. J Inherit Metab Dis 33: 513-520

3 Lang TF (2009). Adult presentation of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). J Inherit Metab Dis. 32: 675-683

4 Wilcken B, Haas M, Joy P (2007). Outcomes of neonatal screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Australia’s cohort study. Lancet 369:37-42

5 Dixon M (2007). MCADD: Dietary management guidelines for dietitians. British Inherited Metabolic Diseases Group

6 Gokmen O, Daly A, Davies P, Chahal S, MacDonald A (2009). Errors in emergency feeds in inherited metabolic disorders: a randomised controlled trial of three preparation methods. Archives of Diseases in Childhood

7 Gandy J (2014). Inherited Metabolic Disorders, Manual of Dietetic Practice, fifth edition. Chapter 7.8. Wiley Blackwell.

8 British Inherited Metabolic Disease Group (BIMDG). Adult emergency management, oral emergency regimen (MCADD). www.bimdg.org.uk/guidelines.

9 Huidekoper H, Ackermans M, Koopman R, van Loon L, Sauerwein H, Wijburg F (2013). Normal rates of whole-body fat oxidation and gluconeogenesis after overnight fasting and moderate-intensity exercise in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis 36: 831-840


1 Commission Regulation (EC) No 41/2009 of 20 January 2009 concerning the composition and labelling of foodstuffs suitable for people intolerant to gluten. Official Journal of the European Union L 16/3, 21.1.2009

2 Codex Standard for Foods for Special Dietary Use for Persons Intolerant to Gluten. CODEX STAN 118 - 1979. Adopted in 1979; amended 1983; revised 2008

3 Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 June 2013 on food intended for infants and young children, food for special medical purposes and total diet replacement for weight control and repealing Council Directive 92/52/EEC, Commission Directives 96/8/EC, 1999/21/EC, 2006/125/EC and 2006/141/EC, Directive 2009/39/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulations (EC) No 41/2009 and (EC) No 953/2009. Official Journal of the European Union L 181/35, 29.6.2013

4 Directive 2009/39/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (recast). Official Journal of the European Union L 124/21, 20.5.2009

5 Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of The Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers, amending Regulations (EC) No 1924/2006 and (EC) No 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Commission Directive 87/250/EEC, Council Directive 90/496/EEC, Commission Directive 1999/10/EC, Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Directives 2002/67/EC and 2008/5/EC and Commission Regulation (EC) No 608/2004. Official Journal of the European Union L 304/18, 22.11.2011

6 Coeliac UK, BDA, PCSG, BSPGHAN (2011). Gluten-free foods: a revised prescribing guide 2011. Accessed on 18 March 2016 at: www.coeliac.org.uk/document-library/378-gluten-free-foods-a-revised-prescribing-guide/?return=/gluten-free-diet-and-lifestyle/pre

7 Lebwohl B, Ludvigsson JF, Green PHR. Coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. BMJ. 2015; 351:4347

8 BDA Policy Statement. Gluten-Free Food on Prescription. Published September 2015. Accessed on 18 March 2016 at: www.bda.uk.com/improvinghealth/healthprofessionals/policy_statement_gluten_free_food_on_prescription

NHD Extra June 2016

Page 53 - Innovation in the nutritional care of dementia

1 Chang CC, Roberts BL. Feeding difficulty in older adults with dementia. J Clin Nurs. 2008; 17(17): 2266-2274. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02275.x

2 Prince M, Emiliano A, Maëlenn G, Matthew P. Nutrition and Dementia A Review of Available Research.; 2014. doi:10.1155/2012/926082

3 Aselage MB. Measuring mealtime difficulties: Eating, feeding and meal behaviours in older adults with dementia. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19(5-6): 621-631. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.03129.x

4 Watson R. The Mokken scaling procedure (MSP) applied to the measurement of feeding difficulty in elderly people with dementia. Int J Nurs Stud. 1996;33(4):385-393. doi:10.1016/0020-7489(95)00058-5

5 Crawley H, Hocking E. Eating Well : Supporting Older People and Older People with Dementia.; 2011

6 Durnbaugh T, Haley B, Roberts S. Assessing problem feeding behaviors in mid-stage Alzheimer’s disease. Geriatr Nurs (Minneap). 1996;17(2):63-67. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cin20&AN=1996018245&site=ehost-live&scope=site

7 Rivière S, Gillette-Guyonnet S, Andrieu S, et al. Cognitive function and caregiver burden: Predictive factors for eating behaviour disorders in Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002;17(10): 950-955. doi:10.1002/gps.724

8 Abdelhamid A, Bunn DK, Dickinson A, et al. Effectiveness of interventions to improve, maintain or facilitate oral food and/or drink intake in people with dementia: systematic review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;14(Suppl 2): P1. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-S2-P1

9 Whear R, Abbott R, Thompson-Coon J, et al. Effectiveness of Mealtime Interventions on Behavior Symptoms of People With Dementia Living in Care Homes: A Systematic Review. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014;15(3): 185-193. doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2013.10.016

10 Allen VJ, Methven L, Gosney MA. Use of nutritional complete supplements in older adults with dementia: Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical outcomes. Clin Nutr. 2013;32(6): 950-957. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2013.03.015

11 Chaudhury H, Hung L, Badger M. The role of physical environment in supporting person-centered dining in long-term care: a review of the literature. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2013;28(5): 491-500. doi:10.1177/1533317513488923

12 Vucea V, Keller HH, Ducak K. Interventions for Improving Mealtime Experiences in Long-Term Care. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. 2014;33(4):249-324 76p. doi:10.1080/21551197.2014.960339

13 Volkert D, Chourdakis M, Faxen-Irving G, et al. ESPEN guidelines on nutrition in dementia. Clin Nutr. 2015;34(6): 1052-1073. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2015.09.004

14 Abbott RA, Whear R, Thompson-Coon J, et al. Effectiveness of mealtime interventions on nutritional outcomes for the elderly living in residential care: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Res Rev. 2013;12(4): 967-981. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2013.06.002

15 Joliffe J, Chadwick D. Guide to Levels of Risk of Negative Health Consequences from Dysphagia.; 2006

16 NPSA. Dysphagia Diet Food Texture Descriptors.; 2011. www.hospitalcaterers.org/publications/downloads/dysphagia-descriptors.pdf

17 The Dementia Mealtime Assessment Tool Software: https://app.thedmat.com/


1 Longstreth GF, Thompson WG, Chey WD, Houghton LA, Mearin F, Spiller RC (2006). Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology, 130, pp 1480-91

2 Heizer W, Southern S and McGovern S (2009). The Role of Diet in Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults: A Narrative Review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(7), pp 1204-1214

3 Böhn L, Störsrud S, Liljebo T, Collin L, Lindfors P, Törnblom H and Simrén M (2015). Diet Low in FODMAPs Reduces Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome as well as Traditional Dietary Advice: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Gastroenterology, 149(6), pp 1399-1407.e2

4 de Roest R, Dobbs B, Chapman B, Batman B, O'Brien L, Leeper J, Hebblethwaite C and Gearry R (2013). The low FODMAP diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective study. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 67(9), pp 895-903

5 Gibson P and Shepherd S (2010). Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: The FODMAP approach. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 25(2), pp 252-258

6 Shepherd S, Parker F, Muir J and Gibson P (2008). Dietary Triggers of Abdominal Symptoms in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Randomised Placebo-Controlled Evidence. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 6(7), pp 765-771

7 Rumessen J and Gudmand-Høyer E (1987). Malabsorption of Fructose-Sorbitol Mixtures Interactions Causing Abdominal Distress. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 22(4), pp 431-436

8 Hayes P, Fraher M and Quigley E (2009). Irritable bowel syndrome: Role of food in pathogenesis and management. Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 10(3), pp 164-174

9 Shepherd S and Gibson P (2013). The complete low-FODMAP diet. United States, New York. Experiment

10 Lovell R and Ford A (2012). Global Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-analysis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 10(7), pp 712-721.e4

11 Staudacher H, Whelan K, Irving P and Lomer M (2011). Comparison of symptom response following advice for a diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs) versus standard dietary advice in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 24(5), pp 487-495

12 NICE (2008). Irritable bowel syndrome in adults: diagnosis and management, Recommendations (CG61)