By Judy More
1 Online survey of 1000 UK parents of children aged 1-4 years conducted by Health Focus during April/May 2016. Sample was representative of the UK population by SEG, Region and Ethnicity within +/- 3%
2 Syrad H, Llewellyn CH, Johnson L, Boniface D, Jebb SA, van Jaarsveld, CHM and Wardle J (2016). Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood. Scientific Reports 6:
4 Cowin I, Emmett P. Diet in a group of 18-month-old children in South West England and comparison with the results of a national survey. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2007; 20: 254-267 4
5 Emmett P, Rogers I, Symes C, ALSPAC Study Team. Food and nutrient intakes of a population sample of three-year-old children in the South West of England in 1996. Public Health Nutrition. 2002; 5: 55-64 5
6 Hinds K, Gregory JR. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: children aged 1.5 to 4.5 years. Volume 2. Report of the Dental Survey. London: HMSO, 1995
7 Wrieden WL, Longbottom PJ, Adamson AJ, Ogston SA, Payne A, Haleem MA, Barton KL. Estimation of typical food portion sizes for children of different ages in Great Britain. British Journal of Nutrition. 2008; 99: 1344-1353 3
8 Fox MK, Reidy K, Karwe V, Ziegler P. Average portions of foods commonly eaten by infants and toddlers. The United States Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2006; 106: Suppl 1: S66-S76 6
9 Webb K, Rutishauser I, Knezevic N. Foods, nutrients and portions consumed by a sample of Australian children aged 16-24 months. Nutrition & Dietetics. 2008; 65: 56-65
10 More JA, Emmett PM (2015). Evidenced-based, practical food portion sizes for preschool children and how they fit into a well-balanced, nutritionally adequate diet. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Apr; 28(2): 135-54. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12228. Epub 2014 Mar 24
11 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2011). Dietary Reference Values for Energy. London: TSO
12 Department of Health Report on Health and Social Subjects No 41. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. London: The Stationery Office, 1991

By Katherine Sykes

1 Elia M, Russell CA (eds). Combating malnutrition: Recommendations for Action. A report from the Advisory Group on Malnutrition, led by BAPEN, Redditch: BAPEN, 2009
2 NHS Digital, Malnutrition figures by provider, 14 December 2016. (Accessed 12 January 2018)
3 Forgotten not Fixed: A blueprint to tackle the increasing burden of malnutrition in England. BSNA, February 2018.
4 Office for National Statistics, Deaths from selected causes, by place of death, England and Wales, 2014 to 2015, December 2016
5 Elia M (on behalf of the Malnutrition Action Group of BAPEN and the National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre). The cost of malnutrition in England and potential cost savings from nutritional interventions (2015)
6 NICE, Nutrition support for adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition - Clinical Guideline 32 (CG32) (2006)
7 NICE, Nutrition support in adults - Quality Standard 24 (QS24) (2012)
8 Managing Adult Malnutrition in the Community. Oral Nutritional Supplements (ONS). Available at
9 BAPEN, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) (2011)
10 A finished admission episode is the first period of in-patient care under one consultant within one healthcare provider.
11 NHS Digital, Malnutrition figures by provider 2009-2016, Published 14 December 2016 [Accessed 23 January 2016 -]; see also NHS England, 2017
12 NHS England, Guidance on commissioning excellent nutrition and hydration 2015-2018, October 2015
13 Stratton R, Green C and Elia M. Disease-related malnutrition; an evidence-based approach to treatment, Oxford: CABI, 2003
14 Weekes CE et al, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. A review of evidence for the impact of improving nutritional care on nutritional and clinical outcomes and cost, 2009
15 O’Brien D (in association with the BSNA). Network Health Digest, Issue 117, 2016. Prescribing Oral Nutritional Supplements

By Jessica Coates

1 WHO (2017). Ten years in public health, 2007–2017: report by Dr Margaret Chan, Director-General, World Health Organisation. Geneva: WHO; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO
2 NICE (2006). Nutrition support for adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition. Clinical guideline [CG32]
3 Russell CA and Elia M (2012). Nutrition Screening Survey in the UK and Republic of Ireland in 2011, A Report by the British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (BAPEN)
4 Green SM and James EP (2013). Barriers and facilitators to nutritional screening of patients; a systematic review, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 26, 211-221
5 Lees L, Allen-Mills G (2009). Auditing the nursing standard for weighing patients on an acute medical unit. Nursing Times; 105: 27, 12-13
6 Leibovitz E, Giryes S, Makhline R, Zikri Ditch M, Berlovitz Y and Boaz M (2013). Malnutrition risk in newly hospitalised overweight and obese individuals: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 67, pages 620-624
7 Mauldin K and O’Leary-Kelley C (2015). New guidelines for assessment of malnutrition in adults: obese critically ill patients. Crit Care Nurse, vol 35 no 4 24-30
8 Brownell KD, Puhl RM, Schwartz MB and Rudd L (2005). Weight bias: Nature, consequences and Remedies. New York, Guildford Press
9 British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society (2014). BOMSS Guidelines on peri-operative and postoperative biochemical monitoring and micronutrient replacement for patients undergoing bariatric surgery,
10 NICE (2014). Obesity: identification, assessment and management. Clinical guideline [CG189]
11 BDA Obesity Specialist Group (2018). Dietetic Obesity Management Interventions in Adults: Evidence Review & Clinical Application.
12 Madden AM, Mulrooney HM and Shah S (2016). Estimation of energy expenditure using prediction equations in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review. J Hum Nutr Diet. 29(4): 458-76.
13 ASPEN (2013). Clinical guidelines: Nutrition support of hospitalised adult patients with obesity. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Vol 37 No 6, 714-744
14 Henry CJ (2005). Basal metabolic rate studies in humans: measurement and development of new equations. Public Health Nutr.8 (7A):1133-52
15 Choban PS, Burge JC and Flancbaum L (1997). Nutrition support of obese hospitalised patients. Vo 12, Issue 4, pg 149-154
16 British Dietetic Association (2017). The Nutrition and Hydration Digest, 2nd Edition. Improving outcomes through food and beverage services:

By Kirsty Robinson

Further reading
• Oral feeding difficulties and dilemmas; A guide to practical care, particularly towards the end of life (2010), Royal College of physicians
• End of life care: Clinically assisted nutrition and hydration (2012). GMC
1 Alzheimer’s UK (2016)
2 Camina Martin MA, Barrera Ortega S, Dominguez Rodriguez L, Couceiro Muino C, de Mateo SB, del Rio MP R. Presence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition in institutionalised elderly with dementia according to the type and deterioration stage. Nutr Hosp. 2012; 27: 434-40
3 Haveman-Nies A, de Groot LC, Van Staveren WA. Fluid intake of elderly Europeans. The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging. 1997; 1:151-5. 12
4 Jesus P et al. Nutritional assessment and follow-up of residents with and without dementia in nursing homes in the Limousin region of France: a health network initiative. J Nutr Health Aging. 2012; 16: 504-8
5 Natalwala A, Potluri R, Uppal H et al. Reasons for hospital admissions in dementia patients in Birmingham, UK, during 2002-2007. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008; 26: 499-505
6 Abdelhamid et al. Effectiveness of interventions to directly support food and drink intake in people with dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis BMC Geriatrics (2016) 16: 26
7 Sampson EL, Candy B, Jones L. Enteral tube feeding for older people with advanced dementia. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.2009, 15, 396-404
8 Brooke J et al. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review: Nutrients, 2015, 7; 2456-2468
9 Alzheimer’s International ‘Nutrition and Dementia - A review of available research’ 2014; Page 72
10 Volkert D et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Nutrition and Dementia. Clinical Nutrition 34 (2015) 1052e1073
11 Ying I (2015). Artificial nutrition and hydration in advanced dementia. Vol 61: Canadian Family Physician, Le Médecin de famille canadien

By Rebecca Gasche
1 Webster-Gandy J (2016). Manual of dietetic practice. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell
2 National institute for health and care excellence (NICE) (2012). SeHCAT (tauroselcholic [75 selenium] acid) for the investigation of diarrhoea due to bile acid malabsorption in people with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) or Crohn's disease without ileal
3 CJ Hawkey, Jaime Bosch, Joel E Richter, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Francis K L Chan, Linda Wedlake and Jervoise Andreyev (2012). Textbook of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Second Edition. Bile Acid Malabsorption. DOI: 10.1002/9781118321386.ch43
4 Thomas P, Green J, Howdle P, Long R, Playford R, Sheridan M, Stevens R, Valori R, Walters J, Addison G, Hill P and Brydon G (2003). Guidelines for the investigation of chronic diarrhoea, 2nd edition. Gut, 52(90005), pp 1v-15
5 CORE (2016). Bile Acid Malabsorption.
6 Ayman Bannaga, Lawrence Kelman, Michelle O'Connor, Claire Pitchford, Julian RF Walters, Ramesh P Arasaradnam (2017). How bad is bile acid diarrhoea: an online survey of patient-reported symptoms and outcomes. BMJ Open Gastroenterology. doi: 10.1136/bmjgast-2016-000116
7 Kelman L (2018). BAM Support UK [Accessed 1 Feb. 2018]
8 Facebook (2018). Bile Salt Malabsorption | Facebook. [online] Available at: [Accessed 28 Jan 2018]
9 A Jackson, A Lalji, M Kabir, A Muls, C Gee, S Vyoral, C Shaw, J Andreyev (2017). The efficacy of using low-fat dietary interventions to manage bile acid malabsorption. Gut.
10 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2013). Bile Acid Malabsorption: Colesevelam.
11 Lorraine Watson, Amyn Lalji, Shankar Bodla, Ann Muls, H Jervoise, N Andreyev and Clare Shaw (2015). Management of bile acid malabsorption using low-fat dietary interventions: a useful strategy applicable to some patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome? Clin Medvol. 15 no. 6, 536-540. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.15-6-536
12 Gracie DJ, Kane JS, Mumtaz S et al. Prevalence of and predictors of bile acid malabsorption in outpatients with chronic diarrhoea. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2012; 24:983-9
13 Costarelli V, Sanders TAB. Acute effects of dietary fat composition on postprandial plasma bile acid and cholecystokinin concentrations in healthy premenopausal women. Br J Nutr2001; 86: 471-7

By Mary Feeney

1 Sladkevicius E, Nagy E, Lack G, Guest JF (2010). Resource implications and budget impact of managing cow’s milk allergy in the UK. J Med Econ, 13(1): 119-128
2 Lozinsky AC, Meyer R, Anagnostou K, Dziubak R, Reeve K, Godwin H, et al. Cow’s milk protein allergy from diagnosis to management: a very different journey for general practitioners and parents. Children. 2015; 2(3): 317-29
3 Excellence NIfHaC: Diagnosis and assessment of food allergy in children and young people in primary care and community settings (2011).
4 Eggesbø M, Botten G and Stigum H (2007). Restricted diets in children with reactions to milk and egg perceived by their parents. Journal of Pediatrics, 139, 583-587
5 Sinagra JL, Bordignon V, Ferraro C, Cristaudo A, Di Rocco M, Amorosi B and Capitanio B (2007). Unnecessary milk elimination diets in children with atopic dermatitis. Pediatric Dermatology, 24, 1-6
6 Meyer R, De Koker C, Dzubiak R et al (2016). The Impact of the Elimination Diet on Growth and Nutrient intake in Children with Food Protein Induced Gastrointestinal Allergies. Clinical and Translational Allergies. Clin Transl Allergy. Jul 14; 6:25
7 Skypala IJ, Venter C, Meyer R, deJong NW, Fox AT, Groetch M et al. The development of a standardised diet history tool to support the diagnosis of food allergy. Clin Transl Allergy. 2015; 5:7
8 Venter C, Brown T, Shah N, Walsh J, Fox AT (2013). Diagnosis and management of non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in infancy - a UK primary care practical guide. Clin Transl Allergy. Jul 8; 3(1): 23
9 Venter C, Brown T, Meyer R, Walsh J et al (2017). Better recognition, diagnosis and management of non IgE mediated cow’s milk allergy in infancy: iMAP - an international interpretation of the MAP (Milk Allergy in Primary Care) guideline. Clin Transl Allergy 7:26
11 Hsu CC, Sandford BA (2007). The Delphi technique: making sense of consensus. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation 12: 1-8
12 Lemon-Mule H, Sampson HA, Sicherer SH, Shreffler WG, Noone S, Nowak-Wegrzyn A (2008). Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg. J Allergy Clin Immunol 122: 977-83.e1
13 Anagnostou K, Stiefel G, Brough H, du Toit G, Lack G, Fox AT. Active management of food allergy: an emerging concept. Arch Dis Child 2015; 100: 386-90
14 Lambert R, Grimshaw KEC, Ellis B, Jaitly J, Roberts G (2017). Evidence that eating baked egg or milk influences egg or milk allergy resolution: a systematic review. Clin Exp Allergy 47(6): 829-837
15 Clark AT, Skypala I, Leech SC, Ewan PW, Dugue P, Brathwaite N, Huber PA, Nasser SM (2010). British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology guidelines for the management of egg allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 40(8): 1116-29
16 Bloom Ka, Huang FR, Bencharitiwong R, Bardina L, Ross A, Sampson HA, Nowak-Wegrzyn A (2014). Effect of heat treatment on milk and egg proteins allergenicity. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 25(8): 740-746
17 Shin M, Lee J, Ahn K, Lee SI, Han Y (2013). The influence of the presence of wheat flour on the antigenic activities of egg white proteins. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 5(1): 42-47
18 Gomaa, A and Boye JI (2013). Impact of thermal processing time and cookie size on the detection of casein, egg, gluten and soy allergens in food. Food Res Int. 52: 483-189
19 Magishi N, Yuikawa N, Kobayashi M, Taniuchi S (2016). Degradation and removal of soybean allergen in Japanese soy sauce. Mol Med Rep. 16(2): 2264-2268
20 Meinlschmidt P, Ueberham E, Lemann J, Schweiggert-Weisz U, Eisner P (2016). Immunoreactivity, sensory and physicochemical properties of fermented soy protein isolate. Food Chem. 205: 229-238

By Leona Courtney
1 McWhirter JP and Pennington CR (1994). Incidence and recognition of malnutrition in hospital. BMJ;308:945-8
2 Edington J et al (1996). Prevalence of malnutrition in patients in general practice. Clin Nutr;15:60-3
3 National Diet and Nutrition Survey. People aged 65 years and over. London: The Stationary Office, 1998
4 Márta K et al (2016). Meta-analysis of early nutrition: The benefits of enteral feeding compared to a nil per os diet not only in severe, but also in mild and moderate acute pancreatitis. Int J Mol Sc 17(10), 1691
5 Rousseau A-F et al (2013). ESPEN endorsed recommendations: nutritional therapy in major burns. Clin Nutr. 32(4): 497-502
6 Stoud M et al (2003). Guidelines for enteral feeding in adult hospital patients. Gut, 52:1-12
7 Boeykens K et al (2014). Reliability of pH measurement and the auscultatory method to confirm the position of a nasogastric tube. Int J Nutr Stud, 51(11):1427-33
8 Blumestein I et al (2014). Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions. World J Gastroent; 20: 8505-8524
9 Gutierrez G and Balfe DM (1991). Fluoroscopically guided nasoenteric feeding tube placement: results of a 1 year study. Radiology. 178: 759-762
10 Altomare R et al (2015). Enteral nutrition support to treat malnutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Nutrients, 7(4)
11 Ata A Rahnemai-Azar et al (2014). Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: Indications, technique, complications and management. World J Gastroenterol 20(24)7739-51
12 Cyrany J et al (2016). Buried bumper syndrome: A complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. World J Gastroenterol, 22(2) 618-27
13 BAPEN (2016). Parenteral Nutrition, available at: , accessed on 27/2/2018
14 Nicole Phelps (2012). Management of phenytoin with enteral tube feeding. Mental Health Clinician: 2(5)108-109
15 Shah N et al (2017). The Use of Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Gastrointestinal Disorders. Pract Gastroenterol: 160
16 Ryan AM et al (2009). Enteral nutrition enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) preserves lean body mass following esophageal cancer surgery: results of a double-blinded randomised controlled trial. Ann Surg, 249(3) 355-63
17 Fietkau R et al (2013). A disease-specific enteral nutrition formula improves nutritional status and functional performance in patients with head and neck and esophageal cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy: Results of a randomised, controlled, multicenter trial. Cancer, 119(18) 3343-53
18 Ojo O et al (2010). The impact of changes in health and social care on enteral feeding in the community. Nutrients 4, 1709-22
19 Klek S et al (2014). Home enteral nutrition reduces complications, length of stay and health care costs: Results from a multicenter study. Am. J Clin Nutr. 100:609-615
20 Brewster DR et al (1997). Case management of kwashiorkor: An intervention project at seven nutrition rehabilitation centres in Malawi. Eur J Clin Nutr. 51:139-147
21 Qian Z et al (2014). Application of home enteral nutrition and its impact on the quality of life in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Chin J Gastrointest Surg.17:158-162

By Justin Ward

1 Dixon M, Leonard J. Intercurrent illness in inborn errors of intermediary metabolism. Arch Dis Child, 1992, 67 1387-91
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By Lucy Aphramor
1 Butler C, Tull ES, Chambers EC, Taylor J (2002). Internalised racism, body fat distribution and abnormal fasting glucose among African-Caribbean women in Dominica, West Indies. Journal of the National Medical Association 94: 143-148
2 Krieger N (2003). Does racism harm health? Did child abuse exist before 1962? On explicit questions, critical science and current controversies: an ecosocial perspective. Am J Public Health. 93: 194-9
3 Marmot MG, Bosma H, Hemingway H, Brunner E and Stansfeld S (1997). Contribution of job control and other risk factors to social variations in coronary heart disease incidence. The Lancet, 350, 235-239
4 An introductory text to the somatic effects of trauma: Van de Kolk BA. The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma. Viking Press. (2014).
5 J Leserman and DA Drossman. Relationship of Abuse History to Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Symptoms. Some Possible Mediating Mechanisms. doi: 10.1177/1524838007303240. Trauma Violence Abuse. July 2007; Vol 8; no 3; 331-343
6 Physicians' attitudes and practices in the evaluation and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006 Aug; 41(8): 892-902.
7 Drossman D (2011). The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 106 (1): 14 -25 p 14. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2010.453. Epub 2010 Dec 7

By Nikki Brierley
1 NICE (2017). Eating Disorders: Recognition and Treatment, Guideline 69.
3 Oxford Dictionaries.
5 Dr Kristin Neff, Self-Compassion.