References All accessed 13.08.20



  1. Abigail H Natenshon (1 February 2017). Neurobiology and the Changing Face of Eating Disorder Treatment: Healing the Eating Disordered Brain, Eating Disorders - A Paradigm of the Biopsychosocial Model of Illness, Ignacio Jauregui-Lobera, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/66173
  2. Frank GKW (2015). Recent Advances in Neuroimaging to Model Eating Disorder Neurobiology. Current Psychiatry Reports
  3. Neural Mechanisms Supporting Maladaptive Food Choices in Anorexia Nervosa. Nat Neurosci. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016, 1 May. Published in final edited form as: Nat Neurosci. 2015 Nov; 18(11): 1571-1573. Published online 2015, 12 Oct. doi: 1038/nn.4136
  4. Kaye WH, Wierenga CE, Bailer UF, Simmons AN and Bischoff-Grethe A (2013). Nothing tastes as good as skinny feels: The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa. Trends in Neuroscience, 36(2), 110-120. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2013.01.003
  5. Mitsuhaya Kurosaki, Naoko Shirao, Hidehisa Yamashita, Yasumasa Okamoto, Shigeto Yamawaki. Distorted Images of One’s Own Body Activates the Prefrontal Cortex and Limbic/Paralimbic System in Young Women: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. doi: 1016/j.biopsych.2005.06.039
  6. Castro-Fornieles J, Caldú X, Andrés-Perpiñá S, Lázaro L, Bargalló N, Falcón C, Junqué C (2010). A cross-sectional and follow-up functional MRI study with a working memory task in adolescent anorexia nervosa. Neuropsychologia, 48(14), 4111-4116
  7. Fladung AK, Grön G, Grammer K, Herrnberger B, Schilly E, Grasteit S, Wolf RG, Walter H and von Wietersheim J (2009). A neural signature of anorexia nervosa in the ventral striatal reward system. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(7), 206-212
  8. Mühlau M, Gaser C, Ilg R, Conrad B, Leibl C, Cebulla MH, Nunnemann S (2007). Gray Matter Decrease of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Anorexia Nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(12), 1850-1857
  9. Phillipou A, Rossell SL, Castle DJ, Gurvich C and Abel LA (2014b). Square Wave Jerks and Anxiety as Distinctive Biomarkers for Anorexia Nervosa. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 55, 8366-8370
  10. Phillipou A, Abel LA, Castle DJ, Hughes ME, Gurvich C, Nibbs RG and Rossell SL (2015). Self-perception and facial emotion perception of others in anorexia nervosa. Frontiers in Psychology
  11. Friederich H-C, Walther S, Bendszus M, Biller A, Thomann P, Zeigermann S, Herzog W (2012). Grey matter abnormalities within cortico-limbic-striatal circuits in acute and weight-restored anorexia nervosa patients. NeuroImage, 59, 1106-1113
  12. Kaye WH, Wierenga CE, Bailer UF, Simmons AN and Bischoff-Grethe A (2013). Nothing tastes as good as skinny feels: the neurobiology of anorexia nervosa. Trends in Neurosciences,36(2), 110–120.
  13. Raffaella Calati, Diana De Ronchi, Maurizio Bellini, Alessandro Serretti. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and eating disorders: a meta-analysis. Int J Eat Disord. 2011 Apr;44(3): 191-9


  1. BBC News (2019) A bit of meat, a lot of veg - the flexitarian diet to feed 10bn [Available:]
  2. EAT-Lancet Commission (2020). Diets for a Better Future G20 National Dietary Guidelines.
  3. British Nutrition Foundation (2017). Go Nuts for Nuts! (Blog) [Available:]
  4. International Nut & Dried Fruit Council (2016) Nuts & dried fruits: Statistical yearbook 2016/2017. [Available: https://www.nutfruit. org/consumers/news/detail/statistical-yearbook-2016-17]
  5. Dikariyanto, V., Berry, S., Pot, G., Francis, L., Smith, L., & Hall, W. (2020). Tree nut snack consumption is associated with better diet quality and CVD risk in the UK adult population: National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008–2014. Public Health Nutrition, 1-10. doi:10.1017/S1368980019003914
  6. Eslami, O, Shidfar, F., Dehnad, A. (2019). Inverse association of long-term nut consumption with weight gain and risk of overweight/obesity: a systematic review. Nutrition Research, Volume 68, 1-8
  7. Mayhew, A., De Souza, R., Meyre, D., Anand, S., & Mente, A. (2016). A systematic review and meta-analysis of nut consumption and incident risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. British Journal of Nutrition, 115(2), 212-225. doi:10.1017/S0007114515004316
  8. De Souza, R.G.M., Schincaglia, R.M., Pimentel, G.D., Mota, J.F. (2017) Nuts and Human Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Nutrients, 9, 1311.
  9. Luo, C., Zhang, Y., Ding, Y., Shan, Z., Chen, S., Yu, M., Hu, F.B., Liu, L. (2014) Nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 100, Issue 1, 256–269,
  10. Aune, D., Keum, N., Giovannucci, E. et al. (2016) Nut consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMC Med 14, 207.
  11. Dikariyanto, V., Berry, S., Pot, G., Francis, L., Smith, L., & Hall, W. (2020). Tree nut snack consumption is associated with better diet quality and CVD risk in the UK adult population: National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008–2014. Public Health Nutrition, 1-10. doi:10.1017/S1368980019003914
  12. Fitzgerald, E., Lambert, K., Stanford, J., & Neale, E. (2020). The effect of nut consumption (tree nuts and peanuts) on the gut microbiota of humans: A systematic review. British Journal of Nutrition, 1-27. doi:10.1017/S0007114520002925
  13. Wu, L., Wang, Z., Zhu, J., Murad, A.L., Prokop, L.J, Murad, M.H (2015) Nut consumption and risk of cancer and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition Reviews, Volume 73, Issue 7 409–425,
  14. McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods Integrated Dataset 2019 (2019) [Available:]
  15. British Nutrition Foundation (2018) Fibre [Available:]
  16. NHS (2020) Eatwell Guide [Available:]
  17. Allergy UK (2020) Statistics [Available:]
  18. Brough, H. A., Turner, P. J., Wright, T., Fox, A. T., Taylor, S. L., Warner, J. O. and Lack, G. (2015) Clinical & Experimental Allergy, (45) 859– 871.
  19. BBC News (2019) Easyjet bans nuts on all flights to protect passengers [Available:]
  20. BBC News (2004) Schools become 'nut-free zones' [Available:]
  21. BBC News (2017) Should we ban nuts in public places? [Available:]
  22. BBC News (2014) Why are almonds so expensive? [Available:]
  23. Children’s Food Campaign, Food Active & Sustain (2020). Pester Power or Parent Power? [Available:]


  3. Puntis JW (2006). Nutritional support in the premature newborn. Postgraduate medical journal, 82(965), 192-198.
  6. Roze´ J-C, Darmaun D, Boquien C-Y et al. The apparent breastfeeding paradox in very preterm infants: relationship between breastfeeding, early weight gain and neurodevelopment based on results from two cohorts, EPIPAGE and LIFT. BMJ Open 2012; 2: e000834. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2012-000834


  1. Wonjeong C, Yeong JJ Jaeyong S, Sung-In J, Eun-Cheol P. December 2018 {cited 2020 Mar 20}. Association between eating behaviour and diet quality: eating alone vs eating with others. Available from:
  2. Tagliaferri S, Lauretani F, Pela G, Meschi T, Maggio M. December 2019 {cited 2020 Mar 20}. The risk of dysphagia is associated with malnutrition and poor functional outcomes in a large population of outpatient older individuals. Available from:
  3. Zaletel, M. August 2016 {cited 2020 Mar 20}. Dysphagia. Available from:
  4. For more information on Malnutrition visit:


  1. Sharma D. Achieving sustainable development nutrition targets: the challenge for South Asia. J Glob Health. 2020; 10(1):010303. doi:10.7189/jogh.10.010303
  3. Swinburn BA et al. The global syndemic of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change: The Lancet Commission report. Lancet. 2019; 393 (10173): 791-846
  5. Dietz WH. Climate change and malnutrition: we need to act now J Clin Invest. 2020;130(2):556–558.
  6. Reipurth MFS, Hørby L, Gregersen CG, Bonke A and Perez Cueto FJA (2019). Barriers and facilitators towards adopting a more plant-based diet in a sample of Danish consumers. Food Quality and Preference, 73, 288-292. doi:10.1016/j. foodqual. 2018.10.012
  7. Reisinger O. Evaluation of vegetarian diet as an alternative in the diet of pregnant and lactating mothers and their children. Komplementer Med. 2002, 6, 18-25
  8. Roger JDP. New Way of Life Advent Kiadó: Budapest, Hungary, 2000; ISBN 963-9122378
  9. Leitzmann C. Vegetarian nutrition: Past, present, future. Am J Clin. Nutr. 2014, 100, 496S-502S
  10. Medawar E, Huhn S, Villringer A et al. The effects of plant-based diets on the body and the brain: a systematic review. Transl Psychiatry 9, 226 (2019).
  11. Fehér A, Gazdecki M, Véha M, Szakály M and Szakály Z (2020). A Comprehensive Review of the Benefits of and the Barriers to the Switch to a Plant-Based Diet. Sustainability, 12(10), 4136. doi:10.3390/su12104136
  12. Backer CJS, Hudders L. Meat morals: Relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior. Meat Sci. 2015, 99, 68-74
  13. Janssen M, Busch C, Rödiger M, Hamm U. Motives of consumers following a vegan diet and their attitudes towards animal agriculture. Appetite 2016, 105, 643-651
  14. Fürediné Kovács, A. Sustainable nutrition through the example of organic food. Environ. Manag. Soc. 2007, 15, 77-103
  15. Davey GK et al. EPIC–Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non-meat eaters in the UK. Public Health Nutr. 6, 259-268 (2003)


  1. Boocok S et al (2014 ).Inherited Metabolic Disorders in Adults. Chapter 7.8 in Gandy J, Manual of Dietetic Practice, 5th Published 2014 by the British Dietetic Association
  2. British Inherited Metabolic Diseases Group (BIMDG) (2020). Inherited Metabolic Diseases. Available online at:
  3. Dixon M et al (2015). Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism, Organic Acidaemias and Urea Cycle Disorders. Chapter 17 in Shaw V, Clinical Paediatric Dietetics, 4th Published 2015 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd
  4. Taken from: Adult Emergency Management Oral Emergency Regimen (ER). Produced by the British Inherited Metabolic Diseases Group (BIMDG), 2017. Available online at:


  1. Patel S (2018). Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an inflammatory, systemic, lifestyle endocrinopathy. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  2. Ding T, Baio G, Hardiman PJ, et al (2016). Diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome in the UK (2004-2014): a retrospective cohort study. BMJ Open
  3. Sirmans SM, Pate KA (2013). Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol.
  4. NHS Overview - PCOS, available at: (accessed 22/08/2020)
  5. NICE Guidelines for PCOS - revised September 2018, available online at (accessed 23/08/2020)
  6. Cunha NBD, Ribeiro CT, Silva CM, Rosa-E-Silva ACJS, De-Souza DA (2019). Dietary intake, body composition and metabolic parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Nutr
  7. Cutler DA, Pride SM, Cheung AP (2019). Low intakes of dietary fibre and magnesium are associated with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome: A cohort study. Food Sci Nutr
  8. Mavropoulos JC, Yancy WS, Hepburn J, Westman EC (2005). The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study. Nutr Metab (Lond)
  9. BDA Food fact Sheet - PCOS - available online at: (accessed 21/08/2020)
  10. Sordia-Hernández LH, Ancer Rodríguez P, Saldivar Rodriguez D et al (2016). Effect of a low glycaemic diet in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and anovulation - a randomised controlled trial. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol
  11. Shishehgar F, Mirmiran P, Rahmati M et al (2019). Does a restricted energy low glycaemic index diet have a different effect on overweight women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome?. BMC Endocr Disord 19, 93
  12. Thomson RL, Spedding S, Buckley JD (2012). Vitamin D in the aetiology and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)
  13. Moran LJ, Ko H, Misso M et al (2013). Dietary composition in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review to inform evidence-based guidelines. J Acad Nutr Diet
  14. Lin MW, Wu MH (2015). The role of vitamin D in polycystic ovary syndrome. Indian J Med Res.
  15. Irani M, Merhi Z (2014). Role of vitamin D in ovarian physiology and its implication in reproduction: a systematic review. Fertil Steril
  16. Rashidi B, Haghollahi F, Shariat M, Zayerii F (2009). The effects of calcium-vitamin D and metformin on polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
  17. Garg G, Kachhawa G, Ramot R et al (2015). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin kinetics and cardiovascular risk factors in polycystic ovarian syndrome: a pilot study. Endocr Connect
  18. Sadeghi A, Djafarian K, Mohammadi H, Shab-Bidar S (2017). Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Diabetes Metab Syndr
  19. Karakas SE, Perroud B, Kind T, Palazoglu M, Fiehn O (2016). Changes in plasma metabolites and glucose homeostasis during omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. BBA Clin
  20. Nadjarzadeh A, Dehghani-Firouzabadi R, Daneshbodi H, Lotfi MH, Vaziri N, Mozaffari-Khosravi H (2015). Effect of Omega-3 supplementation on Visfatin, adiponectin, and anthropometric indices in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Reprod Infertil
  21. Rahmani E, Samimi M, Ebrahimi FA et al (2016). The effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on gene expression of lipoprotein(a) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein, lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol
  22. Ebrahimi FA, Samimi M, Foroozanfard F, Jamilian M, Akbari H, Rahmani E, Ahmadi S, Taghizadeh M, Memarzadeh MR, Asemi Z (2017). The effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on indices of insulin resistance and hormonal parameters in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled Trial. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes
  23. Yang K, Zeng L, Bao T, Ge J (2018). Effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid for polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Reprod Biol Endocrinol
  24. Caireen Roberts et al (2018). National diet and nutrition survey results from years 7 and 8 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2014/2015 – 2015/16). London: Department of Health
  25. Kort DH, Lobo RA (2014). Preliminary evidence that cinnamon improves menstrual cyclicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol
  26. Wang JG, Anderson RA, Graham GM, Chu MC (2007). The effect of cinnamon extract on insulin resistance parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study. Fertil Steril
  27. Amooee S, Parsanezhad ME, Ravanbod Shirazi M, Alborzi S, Samsami A (2013). Metformin versus chromium picolinate in clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOs: a double-blind randomised clinical trial. Iran J Reprod Med
  28. Baillargeon JP, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Ostlund RE, Apridonidze T, Iuorno MJ, Nestler JE (2006). Altered D-Chiro-Inositol urinary clearance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Diabetes Care
  29. Dinicola S1, Chiu TT, Unfer V, Carlomagno G, Bizzarri M (2014). The rationale of the myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol combined treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Pharmacol
  30. Pizzo A1, Laganà AS, Barbaro L (2014). Comparison between effects of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS. Gynecol Endocrinol
  31. Unfer V, Carlomagno G, Dante G, Facchinetti F (2012). Effects of myo-inositol in women with PCOS: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Gynecol Endocrinol
  32. Tang T, Lord JM, Norman RJ, Yasmin E, Balen AH (2012). Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, D-chiro-inositol) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo amenorrhoea and subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev


  1. Jäger R, Kerksick C, Campbell B, Cribb P, Wells S, Skwiat T, Purpura M, Ziegenfuss T, Ferrando A, Arent S, Smith-Ryan A, Stout J, Arciero P, Ormsbee M, Taylor L., Wilborn C, Kalman D, Kreider R, Willoughby D, Hoffman J, Krzykowski J and Antonio J (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 20. Available from:
  2. American College of Sports Medicine (2016). Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, 48(3) p 543-568, Available from:
  3. Kerksick C, Wilborn C, Roberts M, Smith-Ryan A, Kleiner S, Jäger R, Collins R, Cooke M, Davis J, Galvan E, Greenwood M, Lowery L, Wildman R, Antonio J and Kreider R (2018). ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15(38). Available from:
  4. Tang J, Moore D, Kujbida G, Tarnopolsky M and Phillips S (2009). Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 107(3). Available from:
  5. Santos C and Nascimento F (2019). Isolated branched-chain amino acid intake and muscle protein synthesis in humans: a biochemical review. Einstein (São Paulo), 17(3). Available from:
  6. Wu G. (2016). Dietary protein intake and human health. Food & Function, 7. Available from:
  7. Institute of Medicine (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fibre, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids.
  8. Hew-Butler T, Loi V, Pani A and Rosner M (2017). Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia: 2017 Update. Frontiers in Medicine. Available from:
  9. Popkin B, D’Anci K and Rosenberg I (2010). Water, Hydration and Health. Nutrition Reviews, 68(8) Aug. Available from:
  10. Merson S, Maughan R. and Shirreffs S (2008). Rehydration with drinks differing in sodium concentration and recovery from moderate exercise-induced hypohydration in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 103(5) Available from:
  11. Burke L, Jeukendrup A, Jones A and Mooses M (2019). Contemporary Nutrition Strategies to Optimize Performance in Distance Runners and Race Walkers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 29, p117-129. Available from:
  12. Ostrowska A, Szymański W, Kołodziejczyk L and Bołtacz-Rzepkowska E (2016). Evaluation of the Erosive Potential of Selected Isotonic Drinks: In Vitro Studies. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 25(6). Available from: