December/January: Issue 130



1 BDA (2014). Food Facts Sheet ‘Fats’.

2 NICE (2010). Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

3 Chowdhury et al (2014). Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

4 Annals of International Medicine (2014).

5 Mensink et al (2003). Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials

6 Mozaffarian et al (2010). Effects on coronary heart disease of increasing polyunsaturated fat in place of saturated fat: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

7 Hooper (2015). Reduction in Saturated Fat Intake For Cardiovascular Disease

8 Deghan et al (2017). Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study

9 Pett et al (2017). Ancel Keys and the Seven Countries Study: An Evidence-based Response to Revisionist Histories

10 Kromhout et al (2002). Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease: Diet, Lifestyle and Risk Factors in the Seven Countries Study

11 Law (1999). Why heart disease mortality is low in France: the time lag explanation.

12 WHO (2013). Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity – France.

13 Wilkins et al (2017). European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2017 edition.

14 Micha et al (2014). Global, regional and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys.

15 SACN (2015). Carbohydrates and Health

16 WHO (2016). Report of the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity

17 Forouhi et al (2014). Differences in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident Type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

18 Khaw et al (2012). Plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentration and incident coronary heart disease in men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective study

19 De Oliveira et al (2012). Dietary intake of saturated fat by food source and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

20 Gebauer et al (2011). Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: A comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies

21 NHS Choices (2015). Is saturated fat bad for me?

22 Sacks et al (2017). Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association

23 NZ Heart Foundation (2014). Coconut Oil and The Heart

24 Eyres et al (2016). Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans

25 BNF website. ‘Fat’ (accessed September 2017 via:




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2 Durkin MT, Mercer KG, McNulty MF, et al (1999). Vascular surgical society of Great Britain and Ireland: contribution of malnutrition to postoperative morbidity in vascular surgical patients. Br J Surg 86(5): 702

3 Elia M, Russell CA (eds) (2009). Combating malnutrition; recommendations for action. A report from the Advisory Group on Malnutrition, led by BAPEN. Redditch: BAPEN

4 BAPEN Quality Group (2010) Malnutrition Matters - Meeting Quality Standards in Nutritional Care: A Toolkit for Commissioners and Providers in England (Accessed: October 2016)

5 Paddon-Jones D, Sheffield-Moore M, Urban RJ et al (2004). Essential amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation ameliorates muscle protein loss in humans during 28 days bedrest. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89: 4351-4358

6 Weimann A, Braga M, Harsanyi L et al (2006). ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Surgery including Organ Transplantation. Clin Nutr 25.224-244

7 The Veterans Affairs Total Parenteral Nutrition Cooperative Study Group (1991). Perioperative total parenteral nutrition in surgical patients. N Engl J Med; 325:525e32

8 Evans WJ (2010). Skeletal muscle loss: cachexia, sarcopenia and inactivity. Am J Clin Nutr 91(4):1123S-1127S

9 Tyldesley S, Sheehan F, Munk P et al (1979). Prediction of operative morbidity and mortality by preoperative nutritional assessment. Surg Forum; 30:80e2

10 Fried L, Tangen CM, Walston J et al (2001). Frailty in older adults: Evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56: M134-M135

11 Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F et al (2001). Intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 345: 1359-67

12 Zaloga GP (1999). Early enteral nutritional support improves outcome: hypothesis or fact? Crit Care Med 27: 259-61

13 Lewis SJ, Egger M, Sylvester PA, Thomas S (2001). Early enteral feeding versus ‘nil by mouth’ after gastrointestinal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials BMJ 323: 1-5

14 British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (BAPEN). Administering drugs via enteral feeding tubes: a practical guide. (Accessed: Sept 2016)

15 Desborough JP (2000). The stress response to trauma and surgery. Br J Anaesth 85; 109-17

16 Ljungqvist O, Nygren J, Thorell A (2002). Modulation of post-operative insulin resistance by pre-operative carbohydrate loading. Proc Nutr Soc 61(3): 329-36

17 Kortebein P, Ferrando A, Lombeida J et al (2007). Effect of 10 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle in healthy older adults. JAMA 297: 1772-1774

18 Russell CA and Elia M (2011). Nutrition screening surveys in hospitals in the UK, 2007-2011. (Accessed: Sept 2016)

19 Milne AC, Potter J, Vivanti A, Avenell A (2009). Protein and energy supplementation in elderly people at risk from malnutrition. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 15(2). CD003288

20 Hill GL (1994). Changes in body compositional and outcomes

21 Paddon-Jones D, Sheffield-Moore M, Katsanos CS et al (2006). Differential stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in elderly humans following isocaloric ingestion of amino acids or whey protein. Exp Gerontol 41: 215-219

22 Volpi E, Mittendorfer B, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR (1999). Oral amino acids stimulate muscle protein anabolism in the elderly despite higher first-pass splanchnic extraction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol 277:E513-E520

23 Symons TB, Sheffield-Moore M, Wolfe RR, Paddon-Jones D (2009). A moderate serving of high-quality protein maximally stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in young and elderly subjects. J Am Diet Assoc 109:1582-1586

24 Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) (2016) Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support in the critically ill patient. J Parenteral Enteral Nutr 40(2): 159-211

25 Jie B, Jiang ZM, Nolan MT, Zhu SN, Yu K, Kondrup J (2012). Impact of preoperative nutritional support on clinical outcome in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk. Nutrition. 28(10): 1022-1027

26 Marimuthu K, Varadhan KK, Ljungqvist O, Lobo DN (2012). A meta-analysis of the effect of combinations of immune modulating nutrients on outcome in patients undergoing major open gastrointestinal surgery. Ann Surg 255: 1060e8

27 Nygren J, Soop M, Thorell A, Efendic S, Nair KS, Ljungqvist O (1998). Preoperative oral carbohydrate administration reduces ostoperative insulin resistance. Clin Nutr 17(2): 65-71

28 Yuill KA, Richardson RA, Davidson HI, Garden OJ, Parks RW (2005). The administration of an oral carbohydrate-containing fluid prior to major elective upper-gastrointestinal surgery preserves skeletal muscle mass postoperatively - a randomised clinical trial. Clin Nutr 24(1): 32-7

29 Soop M, Nygren J, Thorell A et al (2004). Preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment attenuates endogenous glucose release three days after surgery. Clin Nutr 23: 733-41

30 Soop M, Myrenfors P, Nygren J et al (1998). Preoperative oral carbohydrate intake attenuates metabolic changes immediately after hip replacement. Clinical Nutrition 17(Supp 1): 3-4

31 Svanfeldt M, Thorell A, Hausel J et al (2007). Randomised clinical trial of the effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment on postoperative whole-body protein and glucose kinetics. Br J Surg 94: 1342-50

32 Soop M, Carlson GL, Hopkinson J et al (2004). Randomised clinical trial of the effects of immediate enteral nutrition on metabolic responses to major colorectal surgery in an enhanced recovery protocol. Br J Surg 91: 1138-45

33 Fearon KCH, Ljungqvist O, Von Meyenfeldt M et al (2005). Enhanced recovery after surgery: A consensus review of clinical care for patients undergoing colonic resection. Clin Nutr 245(3); 466-477

34 Arends J, Bachmann P, Baracos V et al (2016). ESPEN guidelines on nutrition in cancer patients. Clin Nutr (2016) 1-38

35 Moore A (2014). Enhanced perspective: Enhanced recovery programmes should be an integral part of a surgery patients’ care plan both before and after surgery. Health Service Journal.



1 SACN (2017) “Draft Feeding in the First Year of Life Report:

2 WHO website. 10 Facts on Breastfeeding (accessed August 2017 via:

3 Victora et al (2016). Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms and lifelong effect.

4 WHO (2015). European Region has lowest global breastfeeding rates.

5 Wolfe & McKee (2013). European Child Health Services and Systems: Lessons without borders.

6 McAndrew et al (2012). Infant Feeding Survey 2010.

7 Bolling et al (2007). Infant Feeding Survey 2005.

8 Hamlyn et al (2002). Infant Feeding 2000.

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10 Women’; website accessed August 2017 via:

11 NHS Choices (2017). Benefits of breastfeeding

12 Renfrew et al (2012). Preventing disease and saving resources: the potential contribution of increasing breastfeeding rates in the UK

13 Pokhrel et al (2014). Potential economic impacts from improving breastfeeding rates in the UK

14 Thomas and Bishop (2011). The Manual of Dietetic Practice (4th edition)

15 Brown (2017). Breastfeeding as a public health responsibility: a review of the evidence.

16 WHO website. HIV and infant feeding; accessed August 2017 via:

17 UNICEF website. What is Baby Friendly; accessed August 2017 via:

18 Kramer et al (2001). Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT): a randomised trial in the Republic of Belarus

19 Barnes et al (2011). The Family- Nurse Partnership Programme in England: Wave 1 implementation in toddlerhood and a comparison between Waves 1 and 2a implementation in pregnancy and infancy

20 NHS Choices (2016). Breastfeeding help and support.



1 Wegburd et al (2017). The complete European guidelines on phenylketonuria: diagnosis and treatment. Online at:



1 Sadler M (2017). European Health Claims: Regulatory Developments. In Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims, Volume 3. Ed: MJ Sadler. Woodhead Publishing, Chapter 1

2 Food Standards Agency (2017). The Food Standards Agency’s preparations for the UK’s exit from the European Union: Report by Rod Ainsworth. FSA Board paper 17-09-04

3 Food Standards Agency (2017). Regulating our future - Why food regulation needs to change and how we are going to do it.

4 Food Standards Agency (2017). The UK’s views on the EU exit and food - part one.

5 EU (2006). Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. Official Journal of the European Union 30.12.2006, L 404

6 Khedkar S, Bröring S, Ciliberti S (2016). Exploring the Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006: What is the impact on innovation. Int J Food Sci Nutr 68(1): 10-17

7 Khedkar S, Ciliberti S, Bröring S (2016). The EU health claims regulation: implications for innovation in the EU food sector, British Food Journal, 118, 2647-2665

8 Sadler M (2017). Update on claims. Network Health Digest, November issue 129

9 EC (2011). The provision of food information to consumers, Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of 25 October 2011 of the European Parliament and Council. Official Journal of the European Union L304/18

10 Sadler M, Gatenby S (2001). Industry labelling guidelines for allergens and food safety advice. Nutrition & Food Science, Vol 31 (2): 79-83



1 NHS UK (2014). Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). [online] Available at:

2 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008). Irritable bowel syndrome in adults: diagnosis and management. NICE Guideline CG61

3 McKenzie YA, Alder A, Anderson W, Brian A, Goddard L, Gulia P, Jankovich E, Mutch P, Reeves L, Singer A, Lomer M (2010). UK evidence-based practice guidelines for the dietetic management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults. Available at:

4 Nanayakkara WS, Skidmore PM, O’Brien L, Wilkinson TJ, Gearry RB (2016). Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 9: 131-142

5 Tuck CJ, Muir JG, Barrett JS, Gibson PR (2014). Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols: role in irritable bowel syndrome. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 8(7): 819-834

6 McKenzie YA, Bowyer RK, Leach H, Gulia P, Horobin J, O’Sullivan NA, Pettitt C, Reeves LB, Seamark L, Williams M, Thompson J, Lomer MCE (2016). British Dietetic Association systematic review and evidence-based practice guidelines for the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome in adults (2016 update). Volume 29, Issue 5. October 2016. Pages 549-575

7 Majella O'Keeffe, Miranda CE Lomer. (2017). Who should deliver the low FODMAP diet and what educational methods are optimal: a review. Volume 32, Issue Supplement S1; p23-26

8 Davies MJ, Heller S, Skinner TC et al (2008). Effectiveness of the diabetes education and self-management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ336, 491-495

9 Ringstrom G, Storsrud S and Simren M (2012). A comparison of a short nurse-based and a long multidisciplinary version of structured patient education in irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J GastroenterolHepatol24, 950-957

10 Joyce T, Staudacher HM, Whelan K, Irving PM, Lomer MC (2013). Group education is as effective as one-to-one sessions when administrating the low FODMAP diet in functional bowel disorders. BMJ. Vol 62, Issue 1

11 Whigham L, Joyce T, Harper G, Irving PM, Staudacher HM, Whelan K, Lomer MCE (2015). Clinical effectiveness and economic costs of group versus one-to-one education for short-chain fermentable carbohydrate restriction (low FODMAP diet) in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Volume 28, issue 6. December 2015. Pages 687-696

12 Hustoft TN, Hausken T, Ystad SO et al (2016). Effects of varying dietary content of fermentable short-chain carbohydrates on symptoms, fecal microenvironment, and cytokine profiles in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. doi: 10.1111/nmo.12969

13 Staudacher HM, Lomer MCE, Anderson JL et al (2012). Fermentable carbohydrate restriction reduces luminal bifidobacteria and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J Nutr.142: 1510-1518

14 Halmos EP, Christophersen CT, Bird AR, Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR, Muir JG (2015). Diets that differ in their FODMAP content alter the colonic luminal microenvironment. Gut. 2015; 64:93-100

15 Gibson PR (2017). The evidence base for efficacy of the low FODMAP diet in irritable bowel syndrome: is it ready for prime time as first line therapy? Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. Volume 32, issue S1. 32-35

16 Staudacher HM (2017). Nutritional, microbiological and psychological implications of the low FODMAP diet. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. Volume 32, issue supplement S1. 16-19

17 Chumpitazi BP, Cope JL, Hollister EB et al (2015). Randomised clinical trial: gut microbiome biomarkers are associated with clinical response to a low FODMAP diet in children with irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 42: 418-427

18 De Roest RH, Dobbs BR, Chapman BA (2013). The low FODMAP diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective study. Int J Clin Prac. 67(9) :895-903

19 Peters SL, Yao CK, Philpott H, Yelland GW, Muir JG, Gibson PR (2016). Randomised clinical trial: the efficacy of gut-directed hypnotherapy is similar to that of the low FODMAP diet for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 44(5): 447-459

20 Eswaran S (2017). Low FODMAP in 2017: Lessons learned from clinical trials and mechanistic studies. Neurogastroenterology and Motility, DOI: 10.1111/nmo.13055

Page 45 - Energy Foods: How to Best Fuel the Active


1 Chief Medical Officers (2011). Start Active, Stay Active. A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. Available at:

2 Department of Health (2011). UK Physical Activity Guidelines. Available at:

3 Health & Social Care Information Centre (2012). Is the adult population in England active enough? Initial results. Available at:

4 Prince SA et al (2008). A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 5:56

5 Healthier South Derbyshire (2017). Barriers to Being Active. Available at:

6 Royal College of Psychiatrists (2015). Tiredness. Available at:

7 Anon (2014). I seem to have no energy lately, even though I drink energy drinks and eat protein bars at low points throughout the day. What can I do to get back my get-up-and-go? Duke Med Health News 20(7): 8

8 The Independent (2010). Energy slumps: Perk up your afternoons. Available at:

9 NHS Choices (2017). Low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia). Available at:

10 NHS Choices (2015). The Energy Diet. Available at:

11 Soreen (2017). Our history. Available at:

12 Soreen (2017). The secret power of malt. Available at:

13 Soreen (2017). Products. Available at:

14 Soreen (2017). Friends of Soreen. Available at:

Page 48 - The Future Dietitian

For those of you who are currently in training, these recommendations are very much going to be shaping your future career. Have a read of the full report in the paper below.

Hickson M, Child J and Collinson A (2017). Future Dietitian 2025: informing the development of a workforce strategy for dietetics. J Hum Nutr Diet.