Page 9 Diet top trumps 2018 – what diets have been popular and why does this matter?
By Emma Berry
1 Matheson M (2017). Women’s Body Image in the Media: An Analytical Study of Recent Body Image Movements across Media Platforms. Available at: Accessed 3rd December 2018
2 U.S. News and World Report (2018). U.S. News Best Diets: How we Rated 40 Eating Plans. Available at: Accessed 3rd December 2018
3 U.S. News and World Report (2018). Experts Who Reviewed the Diets. Available at: Accessed 3rd December 2018
6 NHS (2018). Healthy Weight: Top Diet Reviews. Available at: Accessed 3rd December 2018
7 Harper’s Bazaar. The biggest health food trends of 2019 have been revealed. Available at: Accessed 3rd December 2018
8 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2018). DASH Eating Plan. Available at: Accessed 3rd December 2018
9 Derbyshire E (2016). Flexitarian Diets and Health: A Review of the Evidence-Based Literature. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2016; 3: 55. Available at: Accessed 3rd December 2018

Page 12 Diabetes examined
by Leona Courtney
1 Ghosh S and Collier A (2012). Diabetes. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone
2 American Heart Association (2015). Cardiovascular disease and diabetes [Online]. Available at:
3 Stratton I, Adler A, Neil H, Matthews D, Manley S, Cull C, Hadden D, Turner R and Holman R (2000). Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. British Medical Journal, 321, p 405-412
4 American Diabetes Association (2008). Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 31(8), p S62-267
5 National Health Service (2014). Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Available at:
6 Diabetes UK (2015). Statistics. Available at: [accessed 16/03/18]
7 Bilous R (2015). Diagnosis of gestational diabetes, defining the net, refining the catch. Diabetologia, 58, p 1965-1968
8 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE 2015). Diabetes in pregnancy: management from preconception to the postnatal period (NG3)
9 Anik A et al (2015). Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY): an update. Journal Pediatric Endocrinology Metabolism, 28(3), p 251-263
10 Holt R et al (2010). Textbook of diabetes 4th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
11 Ramblo-Halsted B and Svedelman S (1999). The Natural History of Type 2 Diabetes: Practical Points to Consider in Developing Prevention and Treatment Strategies. Primary Care, 26(4), p 771-776
12 Diabetes UK (2010). One million people in UK unaware they have Type 2 diabetes. Available at:
13 Karlsen S and Nazroo J (2002). Relation between racial discrimination, social class and health among ethnic minority groups. American Journal of Public Health, 92(4), p 624-631
14 Hauner H (2010). Obesity and diabetes 4th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
15 Vaxillaire M and Froguel P (2010). The genetics of Type 2 diabetes: from candidate gene biology to genome-wide studies 4th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
16 Lyssenko V et al (2008). Clinical risk factors, DNA variants and the development of Type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine, 359(20), p 2220-2232
17 Mc Carthy M (2010). Genomics, Type 2 Diabetes and obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 363, p 2339-2350
18 Freemantle N, Holmes J, Hockey A and Kumar S (2008). How strong is the association between abdominal obesity and the incidence of Type 2 diabetes. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 62(9), p 1391-1396
19 Khan R (2004). Weight gain and insulin therapy. British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease. 4, p 264-267
20 Abdullah A et al (2010). The magnitude of association between overweight and obesity and the risk of diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice, 89(3), p 309-319
21 Health and Social Care Information Centre (2014). Health Survey for England 2013 [Homepage of Research Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London], [Online]. Available at:
22 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE 2013). BMI: preventing ill health and premature death in black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups
23 Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN 2010). Management of Diabetes 116: A national clinical guidance. 116. Edinburgh
24 National Institute for Health and Care (NICE 2015) Type 2 diabetes in adults: The management (NG28)
25 Rena G et al (2013). Molecular mechanism of action of metformin: old or new insights? Dibetologia, 59(9), p 1898-1906
26 Bodmer M et al (2008). Metformin, sulfonylureas, or other antidiabetes drugs and the risk of lactic acidosis or hypoglycaemia, A nested case-control analysis. Diabetes Care, 31(11), p 2086-2091
27 Ness-Abramf R and Apovian C (2005). Drug induced weight gain. Timely topics in medicine: Cardiovascular disease, 28(9), p 31
28 Nesto R, Bell D, Bonow R, Fonseca V, Grundy S, Horton E, Le Winter M, Porte D, Semenkovich C, Smith S, Young L, Kahn R (2003). Circulation, 108, p 2941-2948
29 Drucker D and Nauck M (2006). The incretin system: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in Type 2 diabetes.
Lancet, 6(368), p 1696-1705
30 MacDonald P et al (2002). The multiple actions of GLP-1 on the process of glucose stimulated insulin secretion, Diabetes, 51(3), p S434-S442
31 Hausenloy D and Yellon D (2008). GLP-1 therapy beyond glucose control. Circulation, 1, p 147-149
32 Garber A (2011). Long-Acting Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists: a review of their efficacy and tolerability. Diabetes Care, 34(2), p 279-284
33 Katout M et al (2014). Effect of GLP-1 mimetics on blood pressure and relationship to weight loss and glycaemia lowering: Results of a systemic meta-analysis and meta-regression. American Journal of Hypertension, 27(1), p 130-139.
34 Patel V, Joharapurkar A, Shah G and Jain M (2014). Effect of GLP-1 based therapies on diabetic dyslipidaemia. Current Diabetes Reviews, 10(4), p 238-250
35 Sivaraman S et al (2013). Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Based Therapies. British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, 13(5-6), p 229-237
36 Dickinson P et al (2002). A retrospective case-control study of initiating insulin therapy in Type 2 diabetes. Practical Diabetes, 19, p 67-70
37 Nathan D et al (2009). Medical management of hyperglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32(193), p 203
38 Holden S et al (2014). How many people in the UK inject insulin? UK estimates from 1991-2010. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 16(6), p 553-559
39 Amos A et al (1997). The Rising Global Burden of Diabetes and its Complications: Estimates and Projections to the Year 2010. Diabetic Medicine, 14(S5), p S1-S85
40 The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) (2005). Intensive Diabetes Treatment and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(25), p 2643-2653
41 The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group (1993). The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, New England Journal of Medicine, 329(14), p 977-86
42 Diabetes UK (2014). The Cost of Diabetes Report. 2. Available at:
43 Inzucchi S (2002). Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for Type 2 diabetes: scientific review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(3), p 360-372

Page 17 Faltering growth
by Dr Mabel Blades
1 Spitz RA (1945). Hospitalism. Psychoanalytical Study Child.1, p 55-74
2 Shields B et al (2012). Weight faltering and failure to thrive in infancy and early childhood. BMJ 2012; 345: e5931
3 Danone Nutricia Research. Accessed 2-1-19
4 Mumsnet. Accessed 20-12-18
5 Royal College of paediatrics and Child Health: Accessed 26-12-18
6 NICE guideline. (2017). Faltering Growth Recognition and Management of Faltering Growth in Children. Guideline NG75. Published September 2017
7 Kavanagh C and Allen B (2018). Clinical Guideline for: Investigation and Management of Faltering Growth in Babies and Young Children. Norfolk and Norwich Hospitals NHS Trust.
8 Watling R (2009). The positive impact of dietitians in paediatric healthcare. Paediatrics and Child health. Vol 19, issue 9p 400-404. Sept 2009
9 Paediatric Specialist Group of the BDA Accessed 2-1-19

Page 22 Orthorexia: an eating disorder of the modern age?
By Alice Fletcher
1 Dr Steven Bratman MD, MPH website:
2 Donini LM, Marsili D, Graziani MP, Imbriale M, Cannella C. Orthorexia nervosa: a preliminary study with a proposal for diagnosis and an attempt to measure the dimension of the phenomenon. Eat Weight Disord. 2004; 9(2): 151-157. doi: 10.1007/BF03325060.
3 Koven NS and Abry AW (2015). The clinical basis of orthorexia nervosa: emerging perspectives. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 11, 385-94. doi:10.2147/NDT.S61665
4 Vandereycken W. Media hype, diagnostic fad, or genuine disorder? Professionals’ opinions about night eating syndrome, orthorexia, muscle dysmorphia, and emetophobia. Eat Disord. 2011; 19(2): 145-155
5 - accessed 5/12/18
6 - accessed 5/12/18

Page 27 Bolus feeding
by Louise Edwards
1 Simons R, White S, Topen S et al. A survey of bolus feeding practices in the UK home enteral feeding population. BAPEN 2016
2 NICE (2006). Nutrition support in adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition
3 Bolus Feeding in Adults: A Practical Guide. November 2017, Nutricia Ltd
4 BAPEN (2018). Annual BANS Report 2018: Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF) in Adults (2010-2015). Accessed online pdf September 2018
5 Lee J et al (2010). Can continuous pump feeding reduce the incidence of pneumonia in nasogastric tube fed patients? A randomised controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition: 29; 453-458
6 Stroud M, Duncan H, Nightingale J (2003). Guidelines for enteral feeding in adult hospital patients. Gut; 52:1-12
7 Gilbert E, Van Rugge R (2014). Bolus feeding in the Nutritional Management of Head and Neck Cancer Patients. Complete Nutrition Volume 14,1, 26-28

Page 31 An introduction to mindfulness
by Harriet Smith
1 Brown KW and Ryan RM (2003). The Benefits of Being Present: Mindfulness and Its Role in Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822
2 Baltzell A and Cote T (2017). Mindfulness, in Applied Exercise Psychology: The Challenging Journey from Motivation to Adherence. doi: 10.4324/9780203795422
3 Zou T, Wu C and Fan X (2016). The clinical value, principle, and basic practical technique of mindfulness intervention. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. doi: 10.11919/j.issn.1002-0829.216060
4 Will A et al (2015). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for women diagnosed with breast cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011518
5 Evans S et al (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalised anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.07.005
6 Shapiro SL et al (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20237
7 NICE (2009). Depression in Adults: Recognition and Management. Available here:
8 Kuyken W et al (2015). The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: Results of a randomised controlled trial (The PREVENT study). Health Technology Assessment. doi: 10.3310/hta19730
9 Parra-Delgado M and Latorre-Postigo JM (2013). Effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A randomised trial. Cognitive Therapy and Research. doi: 10.1007/s10608-013-9538-z
10 Schmidt S et al (2011). Treating fibromyalgia with mindfulness-based stress reduction: Results from a 3-armed randomised controlled trial. Pain. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.10.043
11 Merkes M and MM (2010). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for people with chronic diseases. Australian Journal of Primary Health. doi: 10.1071/PY09063
12 Katterman SN et al (2014). Mindfulness meditation as an intervention for binge eating, emotional eating, and weight loss: A systematic review. Eating Behaviors. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.01.005
13 Olson KL and Emery CF (2015). Mindfulness and weight loss: A systematic review. Psychosomatic Medicine. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000127
14 Kearney DJ et al (2012). Participation in mindfulness-based stress reduction is not associated with reductions in emotional eating or uncontrolled eating. Nutrition Research. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2012.05.008
15 O’Reilly GA et al (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: A literature review. Obesity Reviews. doi: 10.1111/obr.12156
16 Carrièr K et al (2017). Mindfulness-based interventions for weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis Obesity Reviews

Page 35 The costs of a special diet
by Suzanne Ford and Anita Macdonald
1 van Spronsen F et al (2017). Key European guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with phenylketonuria. The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology Vol 5, Issue 9, September 2017, Pages 743-756
2 van Wegberg et al. The complete European guidelines on phenylketonuria: diagnosis and treatment. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases (2017) 12:162
3 Specialised Commissioning Prescribing Manual, September 2018.; accessed 10.12.18
4 Azadi B, Seddigh A, Tehrani-Doost M, Alaghband-Rad J, Ashrafi MR (2009). Executive dysfunction in treated phenylketonuric patients. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007 18: 360-368
5 Brumm VL, Bilder D and Waisbren SE (2010). Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in phenylketonuria. Mol Genet Metab. 99 Suppl 1: S59-63
6 Van Zutphen KH, Packman W, Sporri L, Needham MC, Morgan C, Weisiger K, Packman S (2007). Executive functioning in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria. Clinical Genetics 72 (1) 13-18
7 Sharman R, Sullivan K, Young R, McGill J (2009). Biochemical Markers associated with executive function in adolescents with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria. Clinical Genetics 75 (2) 169-74
8 Jahja R et al (2017). Cognitive profile and mental health in adult phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO study. Neuropsychology. 2017 May; 31(4): 437-447
9 Jahja Rianne et al. Long-Term Follow-Up of Cognition and Mental Health in Adult Phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO Study. Behav Genet; DOI 10.1007/s10519-017-9863-1
10 Moyle JJ, Fox AM, Arthur M, Bynevelt M and Burnett JR (2007). Meta-analysis of Neuropsychological Symptoms of Adolescents and Adults with PKU. Neuropsychol Rev 17: 91-101
11 Ten Hoedt A, de Sonneville LMJ, Francois B, ter Horst NM, Janssen MCH, Rubio-Gozalbo ME, Wijburg FA, Hollak CEM and Bosch AM (2010). High phenylalanine levels directly affect mood and sustained attention in adults with phenylketonuria: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. J Inher Metab Dis 34: 165-171
12 Romani C, Palermo L, MacDonald A, Limback E, Hall SK, Geberhiwot T (2017). The impact of phenylalanine levels on cognitive outcomes in adults with phenylketonuria: Effects across tasks and developmental stages. Neuropsychology.2017 Mar; 31(3): 242-254
13 Channon S, Goodman G, Zlotowitz S, Mockler C and Lee P (2007). Effects of dietary management of phenylketonuria in long-term cognitive outcome. Arch Dis Child 92: 213-218
14 Brown MCJ and Guest JF. Economic impact of feeding a phenylalanine-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 1999; 43, 30-37
15 Das AM, Goedecke K, Meyer U, Kanzelmeyer N, Koch S, Illsinger S, Lücke T, Hartmann H, Lange K, Lanfermann H, Hoy L, Ding XQ (2013). Dietary habits and metabolic control in adolescents and young adults with phenylketonuria: self-imposed protein restriction may be harmful. JIMD Rep. 2014; 13: 149-58
16 Evans S, Daly A, MacDonald J, Preece MA, Santra S, Vijay S, Chakrapani A, MacDonald A. The Micronutrient Status of Patients with Phenylketonuria on Dietary Treatment: An Ongoing Challenge. Ann Nutr Metab 2014; 65: 42-48
17 MacDonald A, Chakrapani A, Hendriksz C, Daly A, Davies P, Asplin D, Hall K, Booth IW. Protein substitute dosage in PKU: how much do young patients need? Arch Dis Child 2006; 91: 588-593
18 Gokmen-Ozel H, MacDonald A, Daly A, Hall K, Ryder L and Chakrapani A. Long-term efficacy of ‘ready-to-drink’ protein substitute in phenylketonuria. J Hum Nutr Diet, 22, pp 422-427
19 Koletzko B et al. Recommendations and guidelines for perinatal practice; the roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations. J Perinat Med 36 (2008) 5-14
20 Gokmen-Ozel H, Ferguson C, Sharon Evans S, Daly A, MacDonald A. Does a lower carbohydrate protein substitute impact on blood phenylalanine control, growth and appetite in children with PKU? Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 104 (2011) S64-S67
21 MacDonald A, Lilburn M, Cochrane B, Davies P, Daly A, Asplin D, Hall SK, Cousins, Chakrapani A, Robinson P, Lee P. A new, low-volume protein substitute for teenagers and adults with phenylketonuria. J Inherit Metab Dis 27 (2004) 127-135
22 MacDonald A, Lilburn M, Davies MP, Evans S, Daly A, Hall SK, Hendriksz C, Chakrapani A, Lee P. Ready-to-drink’ protein substitute is easier is for people with phenylketonuria. J Inherit Metab Dis (2006) 29:526–531
23 Cochrane B et al. A questionnaire survey on the usage of low protein staple foods by people with phenylketonuria in Scotland (2014). J Hum Nutr Diet 27, 533-541
24 Guest JF, Bai JJ, Taylor RR, Sladkevicius E, Lee PJ and Lachmann RH. Costs and outcomes over 36 years of patients with phenylketonuria who do and do not remain on a phenylalanine-restricted diet. 2013; 57 part 6 pp 567-579
25 Ford S, O'Driscoll M, MacDonald A. Living with Phenylketonuria: Lessons from the PKU community. Mol Genet Metab Rep. 2018; 17:57-63. Published 2018 Oct 18. doi:10.1016/j.ymgmr.2018.10.002
26 accessed 10.12.18
27 accessed 10.12.18
28 accessed 10.12.18
29 Daly A, Evans S, Chahal S, Santra S and MacDonald A (2017). Glycomacropeptide in children with phenylketonuria: does its phenylalanine content affect blood phenylalanine control? J Hum Nutr Diet. 30, 515–523 doi:10.1111/jhn.12438
30 Bridget M Stroup, Denise M Ney, Sangita G. Murali, Frances Rohr, Sally T. Gleason, Sandra C. van Calcar and Harvey L. Levy, Metabolomic Insights into the Nutritional Status of Adults and Adolescents with Phenylketonuria Consuming a Low-Phenylalanine Diet in Combination with Amino Acid and Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods, Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2017, (1), (2017).
31 Maria Pena, Alex Pinto, Anne Daly, Anita MacDonald, Luís Azevedo, Júlio Rocha and Nuno Borges, The Use of Glycomacropeptide in Patients with Phenylketonuria: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Nutrients, 10.3390/nu10111794, 10, 11, (1794), (2018)

Page 40 Maldigestion or malabsorption? The differences explained
by Dr Mabel Blades
1. British Dietetic Association information on lactose intolerance:
2. Cystic Fibrosis Trust:
3. Coeliac UK:
4. Crohn’s and Colitis UK:
5. Guts UK (previously the Digestive Disorders Foundation):
6. Pernicious anaemia Society: