Page 11 - NUTRITION AND BONE HEALTH by Leona Courtney
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10 Public Health England and Food Standards Agency (Revised 2017). The National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Results from years 1-4 (combined) from the rolling programme (2008/09 - 2011/12)
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13 Campos-Obando N et al (2017). Serum Phosphate is associated with fracture risk: The Rotterdam Study and MrOS. J Bone and Mineral Research, 32(6): 1182-93
14 Rude RK et al (2009). Skeletal and hormonal effects of magnesium deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr, 28:131-41
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16 Heaney RP and Layman DK (2008). Amount and type of protein influences bone health. Am J Clin Nutr. 87(5):1567S-70
17 Hannan MT et al (2000). Effect of dietary protein on bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res, 15(12): 2504-12
18 Sahni S et al (2014). Association of total protein intake with bone mineral density and bone loss in men and women from the Framingham Offspring Study. Public Health Nutr. 17(11): 2570-6
19 McLean RR et al (2004). Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in older persons. N Engl J Med. 350(20):2042–9.
20 Sahni S & Kiel DP (2015) Smoking, alcohol and bone health. In: Holick MF, Nieves JW, editors. Nutrition and Bone Health. 2nd edn. New York© Springer New York; 30: 489-504
21 Kanis JA et al (2005). Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis Int.16: 155-62
22 Whisner CM and Castillo LF (2018). Prebiotics, Bone and Mineral Metabolism. Calcif Tissues Int. 102(4): 43-79
23 van den Heuvel E et al (2000). Trans-galacto-oligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 130: 2938-2942
24 Welch A et al (2017). Dietary Magnesium May Be Protective for Aging of Bone and Skeletal Muscle in Middle and Younger Older Age Men and Women: Cross-Sectional, Findings from the UK Biobank Cohort. Nutrients, 9, 1189
25 Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Qiao N, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Cupples LA, et al. Low Plasma Vitamin B(12) is associated with lower BMD: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2005; 20(1): 152-8
26 van Wijngaarden JP et al (2014). Effect of daily vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation on fracture incidence in elderly individuals with an elevated plasma homocysteine concentration: B-PROOF, a randomised controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 100(6): 1578-86
27 Gommans J et al (2013). The effect of homocysteine-lowering with B-vitamins on osteoporotic fractures in patients with cerebrovascular disease: sub-study of VITATOPS, a randomised placebo-controlled trial. BMC Geriatr. 2013; 13:88

Page 19 - VITAMIN D IN THE UK: AN OVERVIEW by Emma Berry
1 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Vitamin D and Health (2016). Available at: Accessed 5th June 2018
2 Webb AR, Kazantzidis A, Kift RC, Farrar MD, Wilkinson J and Rhodes LE. Meeting vitamin D requirements in white Caucasians at UK latitudes: providing a choice. Nutrients (2018). 10(4): doi:10.3390/nu10040497
3 Kent Online. Rising number of Vitamin D deficiency cases in Kent. 2018. Available at: Accessed 5th June 2018
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8 Pereira-Santos M, Costa PRF, Assis AMO, Santos CAST and Santos DB. Obesity and vitamin D deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Review. 2015. 16(4):
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11 Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs. 2014. Available at: Accessed 13th June 2018
12 Harika RK, Dotsch-Klerk M, Zock PL and Eilander A. Compliance with Dietary Guidelines and Increased Fortification Can Double Vitamin D Intake: A Simulation Study. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism (2017). 69(3-4): 246-255

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Page 31 - GLUTEN-FREE DIET - FACT OR FAD? By Rebecca Gasche
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2 Vanderpump et al (2011). Iodine status of UK schoolgirls: a cross-sectional survey. The Lancet, vol 377, issue 9782, 11-17:2007-2012.
4 Michael B Zimmermann. Iodine Deficiency. Endocrine Reviews, vol 30, issue 4, 1 June 2009, p 376-408,
5 Barnett CA, Visser TJ, Williams F et al (2002). Inadequate iodine intake of 40% of pregnant women from a region in Scotland. J Endocrinol Invest, 25: 90
6 Phillips DIW (1997). Iodine, milk and the elimination of endemic goitre in Britain: the story of an accidental public health triumph. J Epidemiol Community Health, 51: 391-393
8 Charlton K, Probst Y and Kiene G (2016). Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme. Nutrients. 2016 Nov; 8(11): 701.
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Further reading
The Lancet. (2008) Iodine deficiency: a way to go yet. Lancet, 372:88
B de Benoist et al (2008). Iodine deficiency in 2007; global progress since 2003. Food Nutr Bull, 29: 195-202