June 18: Issue 135



1 IGD’s research included - desk-based research (Summer 2015), in-store interviews and eye tracking (Nov 2015), focus groups (Summer 2016), message testing (Autumn 2016) and IGD ShopperVista surveyed 1700 shoppers during December 2017 and 1700 shoppers during May 2017.

2 Grunert et al (2010)



1 Crohnsandcolitis.org.uk. (2018). Food and IBD | Crohn's & Colitis UK. [online] Available at: https://www.crohnsandcolitis.org.uk/about-inflammatory-bowel-disease/publications/food-and-ibd [Accessed 01 Apr. 2018].

2 nhs.uk. (2018). Inflammatory bowel disease. [online] Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/inflammatory-bowel-disease/ [Accessed 01 Apr. 2018].

3 Nice.org.uk. (2018). Crohn's disease: management | Guidance and guidelines | NICE. [online] Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg152/chapter/Recommendations [Accessed 01 Apr. 2018].

4 Nice.org.uk. (2018). Ulcerative colitis: management | Guidance and guidelines | NICE. [online] Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg166/chapter/1-Recommendations [Accessed 01 Apr. 2018].

5 Knight-Sepulveda K, Kais S, Santaolalla R, Abreu MT. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2015;11(8):511-520.

6 A. J. Voitk, V. Echave, and J. H. Feller, “Experience with elemental diet in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Is this primary therapy?” Archives of Surgery, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 329–333, 1973

7 Hunter J. Elemental diet and the nutritional treatment of Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench. 2015;8(1):4-5.

8 Forbes, A., Escher, J., Hébuterne, X., Kłęk, S., Krznaric, Z., Schneider, S., Shamir, R., Stardelova, K., Wierdsma, N., Wiskin, A. and Bischoff, S. (2017). ESPEN guideline: Clinical nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical Nutrition, 36(2), pp.321-347.

9 Richman, E. and Rhodes, J. (2013). Review article: evidence-based dietary advice for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 38(10), pp.1156-1171.

10 Nutrition.org.uk. (2018). [online] Available at: https://www.nutrition.org.uk/attachments/article/881/BNF%20Fibre%20factsheet.pdf [Accessed 01 Apr. 2018].

11 Fiber in the Treatment and Maintenance of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. (2014). Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 20(3), pp.576-586.

12 McKenzie, Y., Alder, A., Anderson, W., Wills, A., Goddard, L., Gulia, P., Jankovich, E., Mutch, P., Reeves, L., Singer, A. and Lomer, M. (2012). British Dietetic Association evidence-based guidelines for the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 25(3), pp.260-274.

13 Bda.uk.com. (2018). crohnsdisease. [online] Available at: https://www.bda.uk.com/dt/articles/crohnsdisease [Accessed 01 Apr. 2018].

14 Ananthakrishnan AN, Khalili H, Konijeti GG, et al. A prospective study of long-term intake of dietary fiber and risk of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 2013;145(5):970–977.

15 Brotherton CS, Taylor AG. Dietary fiber information for individuals with Crohn disease: reports of gastrointestinal effects. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2013;36(5):320–327.

16 Vanhauwaert, E., Matthys, C., Verdonck, L. and De Preter, V. (2015). Low-Residue and Low-Fiber Diets in Gastrointestinal Disease Management. Advances in Nutrition, 6(6), pp.820-827.



1 Venter C et al. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of food hypersensitivity in the first 3 years of life. Allergy, 2008. 63(3): p 354-359

2 Fiocchi A et al. World Allergy Organisation (WAO). Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow's Milk Allergy (DRACMA) Guidelines. Pediatr.Allergy Immunol, 2010. 21 Suppl 21: p 1-125

3 Heine RG. Gastrointestinal food allergies. Chem Immunol Allergy, 2015. 101: p 171-180

4 Sladkevicius E et al. Resource implications and budget impact of managing cow milk allergy in the UK. J Med Econ, 2010. 13(1): p 119-128

5 Venter C et al. Diagnosis and management of non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in infancy - a UK primary care practical guide. Clin Transl Allergy, 2013. 3(1): p 23

6 Venter C et al. Better recognition, diagnosis and management of non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in infancy: iMAP - an international interpretation of the MAP (Milk Allergy in Primary Care) guideline. Clin Transl Allergy, 2017. 7: p 26

7 Chebar Lozinsky A et al. Time to symptom improvement using elimination diets in non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergies. Pediatr Allergy Immunol, 2015. 2(3): p 317-329

8 Luyt D et al. BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of cow's milk allergy. Clin.Exp.Allergy, 2014. 44(5): p 642-672

9 Muraro A et al. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy. Allergy, 2014. 69(8): p 1008-1025

10 Boyce JA et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: summary of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel report. Nutr Res., 2011. 31(1): p 61-75

11 Koletzko S et al. Diagnostic Approach and Management of Cow's-Milk Protein Allergy in Infants and Children: ESPGHAN GI Committee Practical Guidelines. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2012. 55(2): p 221-229

12 Host A and S Halken. Hypoallergenic formulas - when, to whom and how long: after more than 15 years we know the right indication! Allergy, 2004. 59 Suppl 78: p 45-52

13 Meyer R, Groetch M and Venter C. When Should Infants with Cow's Milk Protein Allergy Use an Amino Acid Formula? A Practical Guide. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2017

14 Nowak-Wegrzyn A et al. International Consensus Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome: Workgroup Report of the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2017

15 Lozinsky AC and Morais MB. Eosinophilic colitis in infants. J Pediatr (Rio J), 2014. 90(1): p 16-21

16 Alessandri C et al. Tolerability of a fully maturated cheese in cow's milk allergic children: biochemical, immunochemical, and clinical aspects. PLoS.One, 2012. 7(7): p e40945

17 Uncuoglu A et al. Tolerance to baked and fermented cow's milk in children with IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in patients under two years of age. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr), 2017. 45(6): p 560-566

18 Athanasopoulou P et al. Use of baked milk challenges and milk ladders in clinical practice: a worldwide survey of healthcare professionals. Clin Exp Allergy, 2017. 47(3): p 135-143

19 England PH. Salt Reduction Targets for 2017. 2017: London

20 World Health Organisation (2016). WHO calls on countries to reduce sugars intake among adults and children

21 Rosen R et al. NASPGHAN-ESPGHAN Guidelines for Evaluation and Treatment of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux in Infants and Children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2018. Accepted



1 Gale C et al (2012). Effect of breastfeeding compared with formula feeding on infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr (2012): 95 (3): 656-69.

2 Hill CJ et al (2017). Evolution of gut microbiota composition from birth to 24 weeks in the INFANTMET Cohort). Microbiome 5:4

3 Bäckhed F, Roswall J, Peng Y et al. Dynamics and stabilisation of the human gut microbiome during the first year of life. Cell Host Microbe. 2015; 17: 690-703

4 PEN: www.pennutrition.com/KnowledgePathway.aspx?kpid=24357&trid=25391&trcatid=38

5 Pia S (2017). Association between breast milk bacterial communities and establishment and development of the infant gut microbiome. JAMA Pediat 171 (7) 647-654

6 McAndree F et al (2012). Infant Feeding Survey 2010

7 McFadden A et al (2016). Spotlight on infant formula: coordinated global action needed. Lancet 387 (10017): 413-5

8 WHO (2018). WHO and UNICEF issue new guidance to promote breastfeeding in health facilities globally. www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2018/promote-breastfeeding-globally/en/

9 Shim JO (2014). Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 17(2): 80-84. Clostridium difficile in Children: To Treat or Not to Treat?

10 Martin R et al (2016). Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota. PLoS One: 11(60)



1 NHS England Guidance on Commissioning Excellent Nutrition and Hydration 2015-2018. www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/nut-hyd-guid.pdf

2 NICE, Nutrition support for adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition - Clinical Guideline 32 (CG32), 2006

3 NICE, Nutrition support in adults - Quality Standard 24 (QS24), 2012

4 Elia M, Russell CA (eds). Combating malnutrition: Recommendations for Action. A report from the Advisory Group on Malnutrition, led by BAPEN, Redditch: BAPEN, 2009

5 Office for National Statistics, Deaths from selected causes, by place of death, England and Wales, 2014 to 2015, December 2016

6 Stratton RJ, Green C and Elia M (2003). Disease-related malnutrition; an evidence-based approach to treatment. Oxford: CABI Publishing

7 EU Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/128 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 609/2013

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9 BAPEN, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), 2011

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Page 30 - THE ALKALINE DIET EXAMINED by Maeve Hannan


1 Lewis et al (2014). Medical-Surgical Nursing 10th Edition - chapter 16, Fluid electolyte and acid-base imbalances. https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=f-MCDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA287&lpg=PA287&dq=maintains+pH+between+7.35+and+7.45&source=bl&ots=KKQGuUIsOK&sig=Lfqu6LdG-rtrdKtRnsBaJ4qSCRk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiz-YnauLHZAhUEwrwKHU7cDbs4ChDoAQhTMAc#v=onepage&q=maintains%20pH%20between%207.35%20and%207.45&f=false

2 Bernard (1857). An Introduction into the Study of Experimental Medicine

3 Bernard (1859). Lecons sur les proprietes physiologiques et les alterations pathologiques des liquides del’organisme

4 Gennari et al (1982). Determinants of plasma bicarbonate concentration and hydrogen ion balance. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4421511/

5 Arunachalam and Woywodt (2010). Turbid urine and beef-eating rabbits: Claude Bernard (1813-78). www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4421511/

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7 Committee on Nutritional Problems (1936). Food Fallacies and Nutritional Quackery. http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.26.3_Suppl.58

8 Foods & Nutrition Encyclopaedia, 2nd Edition - acid foods and alkaline foods. https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=o3UD2iL4sAAC&pg=PA41&lpg=PA41&dq=ash+residue+of+food&source=bl&ots=SxSaTiJQKC&sig=Xkbej3NpKbyhOfpGNK39-1aphZs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiljsLxvbHZAhUEurwKHQlSAHoQ6AEIowEwEQ#v=onepage&q=acid%20foods%20and%20alkaline%20foods&f=false)

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-38650739 [accessed February 2018]. Table 1 adapted from page 6

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11 www.phmiracleliving.com/t-food-chart.aspx [accessed February 2018]

12 www.phmiracleliving.com/t-Microscopist-List.aspx [accessed February 2018]

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17 Fenton and Huang (2017). Systematic review of the association between dietary acid load, alkaline water and cancer. http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/6/6/e010438

18 Fenton et al (2011). Causal assessment of dietary acid load and bone disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis applying Hill's epidemiologic criteria for causality. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3114717/

19 www.independent.co.uk/news/health/clean-eating-trend-broken-bones-norm-future-experts-warn-national-osteoporosis-society-dairy-gluten-a7680041.html [accessed February 2018]

20 Khan et al (2016). Association between dietary acid load and the risk of cardiovascular disease: nationwide surveys (KNHANES 2008–2011). www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5002186/

21 www.diabetes.org.uk/professionals/position-statements-reports/food-nutrition-lifestyle/low-carb-diets-for-people-with-diabetes [accessed February 2018]

22 www.asa.org.uk/rulings/b-life-ltd-a17-382805.html [accessed February 2018]



1 The Knowledge - Dysphagia: The Hard to Swallow Truth, p7

2 Suzanne Higgs and Jason Thomas. ‘Social Influences of Eating’, in Current Opinion of Behavioural Sciences (2015)

Page 35 -MDT WORK: DIABETES IN PRIMARY CARE by Claire Chaudhry


1 Dr Julia Platts. Diabetes delivery in Wales: Refreshed, Journal of Diabetes Nursing, 2017, Volume 21, No 1, page 8&9, available from: www.thejournalofdiabetesnursing.co.uk/media/content/_master/4870/files/pdf/jdn21-1-8-9.pdf (accessed 22nd February 2018)

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