References April 2022 - issue 171


  1. Lonnie et al (2018). Protein for Life: Review of Optimal Protein Intake, Sustainable Dietary Sources and the Effect on Appetite in Ageing Adults. Nutrients. 10(3): 360. doi:10.3390/nu10030360
  2. Symons et al (2009). Moderation the portion size of a protein meal improves anabolic efficiency in young and elderly. J Am Diet Assoc. 109: 1582-1586
  3. Ko et al (2017). Dietary protein intake and chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 20(1): 77-85. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000342
  4. Qi and Shen (2020). Associations of dietary protein intake with all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 30(7): 1094-1105. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2020.03.008
  5. Baum et al (2016). Protein Consumption and the Elderly: What Is the Optimal Level of Intake? Nutrients. 8(6): 359. doi:10.3390/nu8060359
  6. Sobiecki et al (2016). High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study. Nutr Res. 36(5): 464-77. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.12.016

FUNCTIONAL FOODS by Hazel Windsor-Aubrey, RD

  1. Henry CJ (2010). Functional Foods. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1 (64), 657-659
  2. Bagchi D (ed) (2008). Neutraceutical and Functional Food Regulations. Elsevier: New York
  3. Health Canada (2000). Standards of evidence for evaluating foods with health claims. Fact sheet 1. November 2000
  4. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Functional Foods (2013).
  5. Kaushik R, Sachdeva B, Arora S, Kapila S, Wadhwa BK. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 and calcium from fortified milk. Food Chem. (2014) 147: 307-11
  6. DHSC:
  7. DHSC Nutrition and Health Claims Quick start guide to guidance on compliance with Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.
  8. Selwood, D (2020). Strong choices: Functional food category report 2020. Available: Last accessed 13/02/22
  9. Rodríguez-Pérez C, Molina-Montes E, Verardo V, Artacho R, García-Villanova B, Guerra-Hernández EJ et al. Changes in dietary behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak confinement in the Spanish COVIDiet study. Nutrients (2020) 12: 1730
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  11. British Dietetic Association (2021). Food fortification. Available: Last accessed 13/02/22
  12. European Commission (2010). Functional Foods, 1-10


  1. Galvez-Sánchez CM, Duschek S, Reyes Del Paso GA. Psychological impact of fibromyalgia: current perspectives. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2019; 12: 117-127. Published 2019 Feb 13. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S178240
  2. Bäckryd E, Tanum L, Lind AL, Larsson A, Gordh T. Evidence of both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation in fibromyalgia patients, as assessed by a multiplex protein panel applied to the cerebrospinal fluid and to plasma. J Pain Res. 2017; 10: 515-525. Published 2017 Mar 3. doi:10.2147/JPR.S128508)
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  4. Woolf CJ. Central sensitisation: implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain. Pain. 2011; 152(3 Suppl): S2-S15. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2010.09.030
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by Elizabeth Neal, RD, MSc, PhD

  1. Wilder RM (1921). The effects of ketonemia on the course of epilepsy. Mayo Clinic Proc 2, 307-308.
  2. Rho JM (2017) How does the ketogenic diet induce anti-seizure effects? Neurosci Lett. 637, 4-10
  3. Zhang Y, Xu J, Zhang K, Yang W, Li B (2018) The Anticonvulsant Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Epileptic Seizures and Potential Mechanisms. Curr Neuropharmacol. 16(1), 66-70. 
  4. Augustin K, Khabbush A, Williams S, et al (2018) Mechanisms of action for the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet in neurological and metabolic disorders. Lancet Neurol. 17(1), 84-93. 
  5. Fan Y, Wang H, Liu X, Zhang J, Liu G (2019) Crosstalk between the Ketogenic Diet and Epilepsy: From the Perspective of Gut Microbiota. Mediators Inflamm. 2019:8373060. 
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  7. Kossoff EH., Krauss GL, McGrogan JR, Freeman JM (2003) Efficacy of the Atkins Diet as therapy for intractable epilepsy. Neurology 61, 1789-1791.
  8. Martin-McGill KJ, Lambert B, Whiteley VJ, et al (2019) Understanding the core principles of a 'modified ketogenic diet': a UK and Ireland perspective. J Hum Nutr Diet. 32(3), 385-390.
  9. Pfeifer HH, Thiele E (2005) Low glycemic index treatment: A liberalized ketogenic diet for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Neurology 65, 1810-1812.
  10. Neal EG, Chaffe HM, Schwartz R, Lawson MS, et al (2008) The ketogenic diet in the treatment of epilepsy: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 7, 500-506.
  11. Sharma S, Sankhyan N, Gulati S, Agarwala A (2013) Use of the modified Atkins diet for treatment of refractory childhood epilepsy: a randomized controlled trial. Epilepsia 54(3), 481-486.
  12. Sharma S, Goel S, Jain P, Agarwala A, Aneja S (2016) Evaluation of a simplified modified Atkins diet for use by parents with low levels of literacy in children with refractory epilepsy: A randomized controlled trial. Epilepsy Res. 127, 152-159.
  13. Lambrechts DA, de Kinderen RJ, Vles JS, de Louw AJ, Aldenkamp AP, Majoie HJ (2017) A randomized controlled trial of the ketogenic diet in refractory childhood epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand. 135(2), 231-239.
  14. Martin-McGill KJ, Bresnahan R, Levy RG, Cooper PN (2020) Ketogenic diets for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 6(6), CD001903. 
  15. van Berkel AA, IJff DM, Verkuyl JM (2018) Cognitive benefits of the ketogenic diet in patients with epilepsy: A systematic overview. Epilepsy Behav. 87, 69-77. 
  16. Roehl K, Falco-Walter J, Ouyang B, Balabanov A (2019) Modified ketogenic diets in adults with refractory epilepsy: Efficacious improvements in seizure frequency, seizure severity, and quality of life. Epilepsy Behav. 93, 113-118.
  17. Dressler A, Trimmel-Schwahofer P (2020) The ketogenic diet for infants: How long can you go? Epilepsy Res. 164, 106339. 
  18. Van der Louw E, van den Hurk D, Neal E, et al (2016) Ketogenic diet guidelines for infants with refractory epilepsy. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 20 (6), 798-809.
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  20. Cervenka MC, Wood S, Bagary M, et al (2021) International Recommendations for the Management of Adults Treated with Ketogenic Diet Therapies. Neurol Clin Pract. 11(5), 385-397.
  21. Weber DD, Aminzadeh-Gohari S, Tulipan J, et al (2020) Ketogenic diet in the treatment of cancer - Where do we stand? Mol Metab. 33, 102-121. 
  22. Rusek M, Pluta R, Ułamek-Kozioł M, Czuczwar SJ (2019) Ketogenic Diet in Alzheimer's Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 20(16), 3892. 
  23. Kumar S, Behl T, Sachdeva M, et al (2021) Implicating the effect of ketogenic diet as a preventive measure to obesity and diabetes mellitus. Life Sci. 264, 118661. 
  24. Zhang W, Guo X, Chen L, et al (2021) Ketogenic Diets and Cardio-Metabolic Diseases. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 12, 753039. 
  25. Cai QY, Zhou ZJ, Luo R, et al (2017) Safety and tolerability of the ketogenic diet used for the treatment of refractory childhood epilepsy: a systematic review of published prospective studies. World J Pediatr. 13(6), 528-536.


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by Sophie Martin RD

  1. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (2010). 199, Management of patients with stroke; identification and management of dysphagia. A national clinical guideline [online]. Available from:
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  5. PCRS, BAPEN, ARNS, British Lung Foundation, ACPRC, National Nurses Nutrition Group, Education for Health, Royal College of General Practitioners, The British Dietetic Association and Royal College of Nursing (2020). Managing Malnutrition in COPD. Including a pathway for the appropriate use of ONS to support community healthcare professionals. Managing Malnutrition in COPD [online]. 2(January), p 03-10. [viewed 12 February 2022]. Available from:
  6. NHS (2019). Overview. Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia [online]. NHS. [Viewed 10 February 2022]. Available from:
  7. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2022). Osteoporosis [online]. NICE. [viewed 08 February 2022]. Available from:
  8. Kidney Care UK (2022). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) [online]. Kidney Care UK. [viewed 11 February 2022]. Available from:
  9. NHS (2019). Acute kidney injury [online]. NHS. [viewed 12 February 2022]. Available from:
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  12. GUTSUK (2022). Constipation [online]. [Viewed 12 February 2022]. Available from:

by Joe Alvarez, RD

  1. Bajor A (2008). Bile Acid Induced Diarrhoea Pathophysiological and Clinical Aspects. Inst of Medicine. Dept of Internal Medicine
  2. Hughes LE, Ford C, Brookes MJ, Gama R. Bile acid diarrhoea: Current and potential methods of diagnosis. Ann Clin Biochem. 2021; 58(1): 22-28. doi:10.1177/0004563220966139
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  4. Walters JR, Pattni SS. Managing bile acid diarrhoea. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2010; 3(6): 349-357. doi:10.1177/1756283X10377126
  5. National Institute for Health and Care Excellency (2021). SeHCAT tauroselcholic [75 selenium] acid) for diagnosing bile acid diarrhoea Diagnostics guidance [DG44]
  6. Wedlake L, A'Hern R, Russell D, Thomas K, Walters JR, Andreyev HJ. Systematic review: the prevalence of idiopathic bile acid malabsorption as diagnosed by SeHCAT scanning in patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther (2009); 30(7): 707-717. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2009.04081.x
  7. Slattery SA, Niaz O, Aziz Q, Ford AC, Farmer AD. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the prevalence of bile acid malabsorption in the irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015; 42(1): 3-11. doi:10.1111/apt.13227
  8. Merrick MV, Eastwood MA, Ford MJ. Is bile acid malabsorption underdiagnosed? An evaluation of accuracy of diagnosis by measurement of SeHCAT retention. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985; 290(6469): 665-668. doi:10.1136/bmj.290.6469.665
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  20. Gee C, Fleuret C, Wilson A et al. Bile Acid Malabsorption as a Consequence of Cancer Treatment: Prevalence and Management in the National Leading Centre. Cancers (Basel). 2021; 13(24): 6213. Published 2021 Dec 10. doi:10.3390/cancers13246213

INFANT WEANING by Aqsa Mahmood, ANutr

  1. Start4Life (nd). Weaning [online] Available at:
  2. National Childbirth Trust (2019). Baby-led weaning: 10 tips to get you started [online]. Available at:
  3. BDA (nd). Complementary feeding (weaning) [online]. Available at:

by Sarah Bailey, RD

  1. Summar ML and Mew NA (2018). Inborn errors of metabolism with hyperammonemia: Urea cycle defects and related disorders. Paediatric Clinical Nutrition 65, p 231-246
  2. Zschocke J and Hoffmann GF (2020). Vademecum Metabolicum, 5th Thieme, Germany
  3. Dixon M (2020). Organic Acidaemias and Urea Cycle Disorders. In: Shaw V; eds. Clinical Paediatric Dietetics 5th Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, p 560-593
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  7. Haberle J et al (2019). Suggested guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urea cycle disorders: First revision. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 42, p 1192-1230
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  9. WHO/FAO/UNU (2007). Expert consultation, protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition. WHO technical report series 935, UNU/WHO: Geneva, Switzerland
  10. Burrage LC et al (2014). Sodium phenylbutyrate decreases plasma branched-chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 113 (1-2), p 131-135
  11. Molema F et al (2019). Evaluation of dietary treatment and amino acid supplementation in organic acidurias and urea cycle disorders: On the basis of information from a European multicentre registry. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 42, p 1162-1175
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by Katy Stuart, RD

  1. BAPEN (2020).
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