References Aug/Sept 2022 - issue 174

UP FRONT from the Editor, Emma Coates

  1. Fitzsimons E and Marcos V-H (2022). Breastfeeding and Child Development. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics,14 (3): 329-66.DOI: 10.1257/app.20180385. Draft at:
  2. Millennium Cohort Study. Centre for Longitudinal Studies, University College London.
  3. RCPCH Breastfeeding in the UK – position statement. Updated May 2022.
  4. Birmingham Live. The laws on breastfeeding in public - where you can and can't do it by Jane Tyler. 3 JUL 2022.
  5. BBC online. Mum told to stop breastfeeding at Kidderminster Sainsbury's.


  1. Cockbain et al (2012). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment and prevention of colorectal cancer. Gut. 61(1): 135-149
  2. Molassiotis et al (2007). Surviving against all odds: analysis of 6 case studies of patients with cancer who followed the Gerson Therapy. Integ Can Ther. 6, (1): 80-88
  3. Huebner et al (2014). Counselling patients on cancer diets: a review of the literature and recommendations for clinical practice. Antican Res. 34(1): 39-48



  1. Elia M, Russell CA (eds). Combating malnutrition. Recommendations for Action. A report from the Advisory Group on Malnutrition, led by BAPEN. Redditch: BAPEN, 2009
  2. Malnutrition Taskforce. State of the Nation report 2021 Older people and malnutrition in the UK today. Revised 8/21 Available from Accessed online June 2022
  3. BAPEN (2021). New data reveals the increased cost of malnutrition in England. Available from Accessed online June 2022
  4. NHS Digital. Admissions for scurvy, rickets and malnutrition. Number of admissions for scurvy, rickets and malnutrition, broken down by age group, for the years 2007-08 to 2020-21. Available from Accessed online June 2022
  5. Forgotten not Fixed: A Blueprint to Tackle the Increasing Burden of Malnutrition in England. 2018. Available from Accessed online June 2022
  6. Meijers JM, Halfens RJ, Neyens JC, Luiking YC, Verlaan G, Schols JM. Predicting falls in elderly receiving home care: the role of malnutrition and impaired mobility. J Nutr Health Ageing. 2012 Jul; 16(7): 654-8. doi:10.1007/s12603-012-0010-7. PMID: 22836709
  7. Stratton R, Smith T, Gabe S. Managing malnutrition to improve lives and save money. BAPEN. October 2018
  8. Elia M (2015). The cost of malnutrition in England and potential cost savings from nutritional interventions. A report on the cost of disease-related malnutrition in England and a budget impact analysis of implementing the NICE clinical guidelines/quality standard on nutritional support in adults. Available at
  9. Care Quality Commission. The State of Adult Social Care Services. 2017. Available online:
  10. Carers UK (2012). Malnutrition and Caring: The Hidden Cost for Families. Available from Accessed online June 2022
  11. Malnutrition Taskforce. Malnutrition factsheet, Available from: Accessed online June 2022
  12. Purdam K, Esmail A and Garratt E (2019). Food insecurity amongst older people in the UK. British Food Journal, Vol 121, No 3, p 658-674.
  13. Tucher EL, Keeney T, Cohen AJ, Thomas KS. Conceptualising Food Insecurity Among Older Adults: Development of a Summary Indicator in the National Health and Ageing Trends Study. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2021; 76(10): 2063-2072. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbaa147
  14. Sustainable Development Goals in the UK follow-up: Hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity in the UK (2018). Available from Accessed online June 2022
  15. The Trussell Trust. State of Hunger. Building the evidence on poverty, destitution, and food insecurity in the UK. Year two main report May 2021. Available from Accessed online June 2022
  16. The Malnutrition Awareness Prevention Network.
  17. Letter from the UK Malnutrition Awareness and Prevention Network partner organisations to Rt Hon Matt Hancock MP, Secretary of State for Health and Social Care Department of Health and Social Care. 29th June 2020.



  1. Elia M, Smith RM (2009). Improving nutritional care and treatment – Perspectives and Recommendations from Population Groups, Patients and Carers. Worcestershire: BAPEN (British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition)
  2. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2006). Nutrition support for adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition (Clinical guideline [CG32]). Updated 17 August 2017. Available from: [Accessed 12 July 2022]
  3. Stratton R, Smith T and Gabe S (2018). Managing malnutrition to improve lives and save money. British Association of Parenteral and Enteral nutrition. Available from: [Accessed 12 July 2022]
  4. Malnutrition Task Force (2021). Older people and malnutrition in the UK today. Updated August 2021. Available from: [Accessed 14 July 2022]
  5. Stratton R, Elia M (2014). Malnutrition. In Gandy J. (editor) Manual of Dietetic Practice. 5th Chichester: Wiley Blackwell
  6. Ahmed T, Haboubi N (2010). Assessment and management of nutrition in older people and its importance to health. Clin Interv Aging. 5, 207–216. Available from: [Accessed 14 July 2022]
  7. Stratton RJ, King CL, Stroud MA et al (2006). Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool predicts mortality and length of hospital stay in acutely ill elderly. Br J Nutr. 95(2), 325-30. Available from: [Accessed 12 July 2022]
  8. Elia M (2015). The cost of malnutrition in England and potential cost savings from nutritional interventions. British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre. Available from: chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/ [Accessed 12 July 2022]
  9. Stratton RJ, Elia M (2010). Encouraging appropriate, evidence-based use of oral nutritional supplements. Proc Nutr Soc. 69(4), 477-87. Available from: [Accessed 12 July 2022]



  1. WHO
  2. Santhakumaran S, Statnikov Y, Gray D, et al (2017). Survival of very preterm infants admitted to neonatal care in England 2008-2014: time trends and regional variation. Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition; doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2017-312748
  3. UNICEF and WHO (2004). Low Birthweight: Country, Regional and Global Estimates. Available at:
  4. McGuire W, Henderson G, Fowlie PW (2004). Feeding the preterm infant. BMJ 329: 1227.
  5. Saigal S, Doyle LW (2008). An overview of mortality and sequelae of preterm birth from infancy to adulthood. Lancet 371: 261-9
  6. ESPGHAN (2019). Feeding the late and moderately preterm infant.
  7. Kumar R. Kishore, Singhal Atul, Vaidya Umesh, Banerjee Saswata, Anwar Fahmina, Rao Shashihar (2017). Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants—Consensus Summary. Frontiers in Nutrition. Vol 4. DOI:10.3389/fnut.2017.00020
  8. NHD Greater Glasgow and Clyde NHSGGC guidelines
  9. Tsang, RC (2005). Nutrition of the Preterm Infant: Scientific Basis and Practical Guidelines. 2nd ISBN 10: 1583521003 ISBN 13: 9781583521007
  10. ABC of preterm birth
  11. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants—Consensus Summary
  12. Bertino E, Nicola PD, Giuliani F et al (2012). Benefits of human milk in preterm infant feeding. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualised Medicine, 1(1): 19-24
  14. SR, Kendrick DE, Stoll BJ, et al. Neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants after necrotising enterocolitis. 2005 Mar;115(3):696-703. [PubMed] [Google Scholar
  15. Underwood MA. Human milk for the premature infant. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013 Feb;60(1):189-207. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.09.008. Epub 2012 Oct 18. PMID: 23178065; PMCID: PMC3508468.
  16. NICE Clinical guideline [CG93] Donor milk banks: service operation.
  17. Agostoni C, Buonocore G, Carnielli VP et al (2010). Enteral Nutrient Supply for Preterm Infants: Commentary From the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. JPGN. 50: 85-91
  18. Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH). Clinical Guidelines. Nutrition: enteral nutrition for the preterm infant. Available at:
  19. NHD
  20. Thoene M, Anderson-Berry A. Early Enteral Feeding in Preterm Infants: A Narrative Review of the Nutritional, Metabolic, and Developmental Benefits. Nutrients. 2021 Jul 1;13(7):2289. doi: 10.3390/nu13072289. PMID: 34371799; PMCID: PMC8308411.
  21. NICE guideline [NG154]. Neonatal parenteral nutrition.
  22. World Health Organisation in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (2007). Safe preparation, storage and handling of powdered infant formula
  23. 23 BDA Guidelines for the Preparation and Handling of Expressed and Donor Breast Milk and Specialist Feeds for Infants and Children in Neonatal and Paediatric Health Care Settings.
  24. Shulhan J, Dicken B, Hartling L, Larsen BM. Current Knowledge of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants and the Impact of Different Types of Enteral Nutrition Products. Adv Nutr. 2017 Jan 17;8(1):80-91. doi: 10.3945/an.116.013193. PMID: 28096129; PMCID: PMC5227976.
  25. European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFONI). Feeding stages: enteral and parenteral.


  • Sophie Jupe, Kate Maslin. The use of Breast Milk Fortifier in Preterm Infants by paediatric dietitians in the UK.
  • BDA n Guidelines for the Preparation and Handling of Expressed and Donor Breast Milk and Specialist Feeds for Infants and Children in Neonatal and Paediatric Health Care Settings.



  1. British Nutrition Foundation; (nd). Breastfeeding - An introduction. Available at:
  2. BDA (nd). Breastfeeding - what are the benefits? Available at:
  3. nidirect (2015). Healthy eating for breastfeeding. Available at:
  4. Fitzsimons E and Marcos V-H (2022). Breastfeeding and Child Development. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 14 (3): 329-66.DOI: 10.1257/app.20180385. Draft at:
  5. Medela (nd). What to eat while breastfeeding. Available at:
  6. NHS (2020). Breastfeeding and diet. Available at:



  1. Ananthakrishnan AN. Epidemiology and risk factors for IBD. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015, 12, 205-217
  2. Vindigni SM et al. The Intestinal Microbiome, Barrier Function, and Immune System in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Tripartite Pathophysiological Circuit with Implications for New Therapeutic Directions. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, July 2016, p 606-625, doi:1177/1756283X16644242
  3. Kaplan GG. The global burden of IBD: from 2015 to 2025. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015, 12, 720-727
  4. Dahlhamer JM, Zammitti EP, Ward BW, Wheaton AG, Croft JB. Prevalence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease among Adults Aged ≥18 Years. United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly. Rep. 2016, 65, 1166-1169
  5. Chiba M, Morita N, Nakamura A, Tsuji K and Harashima E (2021). Increased Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Association with Dietary Transition (Westernisation) in Japan. JMA journal, 4(4), 347-357.
  6. Veauthier B, Hornecker JR. Crohn’s Disease: Diagnosis and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2018; 98: 661-669
  7. Torres J, Mehandru S, Colombel JF, Peyrin-Biroulet L. Crohn’s Disease. Lancet. 2017; 389: 1741-1755. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31711-1
  8. Baldassano RN, Piccoli DA. Inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric and adolescent patients.Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1999; 28(2): 445-458. doi:10.1016/s0889-8553(05)70064-9)
  9. Ananthakrishnan AN, Bernstein CN, Iliopoulos D, MacPherson A, Neurath MF, Ali RAR, Vavricka SR, Fiocchi C. Environmental triggers in IBD: A review of progress and evidence. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018, 15, 39-49
  10. Sugihara K, Kamada N. Diet-Microbiota Interactions in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Nutrients 2021,13,1533. https://
  11. Scaldaferri F, Pizzoferrato M, Lopetuso LR, Musca T, Ingravalle F, Sicignano LL, Mentella M, Miggiano G, Mele MC, Gaetani E et al. Nutrition and IBD: Malnutrition and/or Sarcopenia? A Practical Guide. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2017: 8646495. doi:10.1155/2017/8646495
  12. Narula N, Dhillon A., Zhang D, Sherlock ME, Tondeur M, Zachos M. Enteral nutritional therapy for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018, 4, CD000542
  13. Borrelli O, Cordischi L, Cirulli M, Paganelli M, Labalestra V, Uccini S, Russo PM, Cucchiara S. Polymeric Diet Alone versus Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Active Pediatric Crohn’s Disease: A Randomised Controlled Open-Label Trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006, 4, 744-753
  14. Yanai H, Levine A, Hirsch A et al. The Crohn's disease exclusion diet for induction and maintenance of remission in adults with mild-to-moderate Crohn's disease (CDED-AD): an open-label, pilot, randomised trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022; 7(1): 49-59. doi:10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00299-5
  15. Szczubełek M, Pomorska K, Korólczyk-Kowalczyk M, Lewandowski K, Kaniewska M and Rydzewska G (2021). Effectiveness of Crohn's Disease Exclusion Diet for Induction of Remission in Crohn's Disease Adult Patients. Nutrients, 13(11), 4112.
  16. Wall CL, Day AS, Gearry RB. Use of exclusive enteral nutrition in adults with Crohn’s disease: A review. World J. Gastroenterol. 2013; 19: 7652-7660. doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i43.7652
  17. Malchow H, Steinhardt HJ, Lorenz-Meyer H, Strohm WD, Rasmussen S, Sommer H, Jarnum S, Brandes JW, Leonhardt H, Ewe K et al. Feasibility and effectiveness of a defined-formula diet regimen in treating active Crohn’s disease. European Cooperative Crohn’s Disease Study III. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990; 25: 235-244. doi:10.1080/00365521.1990.12067097
  18. Johnson T, Macdonald S, Hill SM, Thomas A, Murphy MS. Treatment of active Crohn’s disease in children using partial enteral nutrition with liquid formula: a randomised controlled trial. Gut. 2006; 55: 356-361. doi:10.1136/gut.2004.062554
  19. Levine A, Wine E, Assa A, Boneh RS, Shaoul R, Kori M, Cohen S, Peleg S, Shamaly H, On A. Crohn’s Disease Exclusion Diet Plus Partial Enteral Nutrition Induces Sustained Remission in a Randomised Controlled Trial. Gastroenterology. 2019; 157: 440-450.e8. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.021
  20. Halpin and Ford. Am J Gastroenterol, 2012; 107: 1474-82
  21. Cox, Gastroenterology. 2020; 158: 176-188
  22. Sandall et al, J Acad Nutr Diet, 2020; 120: 624-640
  23. Lamb CA, Kennedy NA, Raine T et al. British Society of Gastroenterology consensus guidelines on the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults. Gut. 2019; 68 (Suppl 3): s1-s106
  24. Sorathia AZ, Sorathia SJ. Low residue diet. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL)2021
  25. Charlebois A, Rosenfeld G, Bressler B. The impact of dietary interventions on the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016; 56: 1370-8
  26. Levenstein S, Prantera C, Luzi C, D'Ubaldi A. Low residue or normal diet in Crohn's disease: a prospective controlled study in Italian patients. Gut. 1985; 26(10): 989-93
  27. Day AS, Davis R, Costello SP, Yao CK, Andrews JM, Bryant RV. The adequacy of habitual dietary fibre intake in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2021; 121: 688-708 e3
  28. Brotherton CS, Martin CA, Long MD, Kappelman MD, Sandler RS. Avoidance of fibre is associated with greater risk of Crohn's disease flare in a 6-month period. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016; 14: 1130-6
  29. Godny L, Maharshak N, Reshef L et al. Fruit consumption is associated with alterations in microbial composition and lower rates of pouchitis. J Crohns Colitis. 2019; 13: 1265-72
  30. Cao Y, Liu H, Qin N, Ren X, Zhu B, Xia X. Impact of food additives on the composition and function of gut microbiota: A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2020, 99, 295-310
  31. Cox, Selina et al. Food additive emulsifiers: a review of their role in foods, legislation and classifications, presence in food supply, dietary exposure, and safety assessment. Nutrition reviews. Vol 79, 6 (2021): 726-741. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuaa038
  32. Chassaing B, Koren O, Goodrich JK, Poole AC, Srinivasan S, Ley RE, Gewirtz AT. Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome. Nat Cell Biol. 2015, 519, 92-96



  1. Wholegrains Council. What’s a wholegrain? A refined grain? Available from:
  2. Heart UK. Wholegrains. Available from:
  3. Slavin J (2004). Wholegrains and human health. Nutrition Research Reviews, 17(1), p 99-110. Available from:
  4. Aune D, Keum N, Giovannucci E, Fadnes L, Boffetta P, Greenwood D, Tonstad S, Vatten L, Riboli E and Norat T (2016). Wholegrain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause and cause specific mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. British Medical Journal. Available from:
  5. Hullings A, Sinha R, Liao L, Freedman N, Graubard B and Loftfield E (2020). Wholegrain and dietary fibre intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 112(3), p 603-612. Available from:
  6. Zhang X, Wang X, Tang Y, Guan X, Guo Y, Fan J and Cui L (2020). Association of wholegrains intake and the risk of digestive tract cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition Journal, 19(1). Available from:
  7. Ye Q, Chacko A, Chou L, Kugizaki M and Liu S (2012). Greater wholegrain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and weight gain. Journal of Nutrition, 142(7), p 1304-1313. Available from:
  8. US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture (2015). 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. Available from:
  9. Health Canada (2019). Canada’s Dietary Guidelines for Health Professionals and Policy Makers. Available from:
  10. Public Health England (2020). National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme Years 9 to 11 (2016/2017 to 2018/2019). Available from:
  11. Ros E (2010). Health Benefits of Nut Consumption. Nutrients, 2(7), p 652-682. Available from:
  12. Novotny J, Gebauer S and Baer D (2012). Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(2), p 296-301. Available from:
  13. Naghshi S, Aune D, Beyene J et al (2021). Dietary intake and biomarkers of alpha linolenic acid and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. British Medical Journal. Available from:
  14. Machado de Souza R, Machado Schincaglia R, Pimentel G and Mota J (2017). Nuts and Human Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Nutrients, 9(12). Available from:
  15. Dikariyanto V, Berry S, Pot G, Francis L, Smith L and Hall W (2020). Tree nut snack consumption is associated with better diet quality and CVD risk in the UK adult population: National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Public Health Nutrition, 23(17), p 3160-3169. Available from:
  16. Knowledge for Policy. Summary of FBDG recommendations for nuts and seeds for the EU, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Available from:



  1. Gatineau M. Obesity and disability children and young people [Internet]. 2014 [cited 29 March 2022]. Available from:
  2. Overview | Weight management: lifestyle services for overweight or obese children and young people | Guidance | NICE [Internet]. 2013 [cited 29 March 2022]. Available from:
  3. Healy S, Aigner C, Haegele J. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US youth with autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2018; 23(4): 1046-1050
  4. Bertapelli F, Pitetti K, Agiovlasitis S et al. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with Down syndrome: prevalence, determinants, consequences, and interventions: A literature review. Res Dev Disabil. 2016; 57: 181-192
  5. National Child Measurement Programme, England 2020/21 School Year – NHS Digital [Internet]. NHS Digital. 2021 [cited 29 March 2022]. Available from:
  6. McCann D, Bull R, Winzenberg T. The daily patterns of time use for parents of children with complex needs: a systematic review. J Child Health Care. 2012; 16: 26-52



  1. McSwiney FT, Doyle L, Plews DJ, Zinn C. Impact of Ketogenic Diet on Athletes: Current Insights. Open Access J Sports Med. 2019 Nov 15; 10: 171-183. doi: 10.2147/OAJSM.S180409. PMID: 31814784; PMCID: PMC6863116

Further reading

  • Kerksick CM, Wilborn CD, Roberts MD et al. ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Aug 1; 15(1): 38. doi: 10.1186/s12970-018-0242-y. PMID: 30068354; PMCID: PMC6090881
  • Devrim-Lanpir A, Hill L, Knechtle B. Efficacy of Popular Diets Applied by Endurance Athletes on Sports Performance: Beneficial or Detrimental? A Narrative Review. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 2; 13(2): 491. doi: 10.3390/nu13020491. PMID: 33540813; PMCID: PMC7912997