References Dec 2023 / Jan 24 - issue 185


1 Rhee EJ (2017). Weight Cycling and Its Cardiometabolic Impact. J Obes Metab Syndr. 26(4): 237-242. doi:10.7570/jomes.2017.26.4.237


  1. Keng SL, Smoski MJ, Robins CJ. Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: a review of empirical studies. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011 Aug;31(6):1041-56. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006. Epub 2011 May 13. PMID: 21802619; PMCID: PMC3679190.
  2. Tapper, K. (2022) Mindful eating: what we know so far. Nutrition Bulletin, 47, 168– 185. Available from:
  3. Framson, C., Kristal, A.R., Schenk, J.M., Littman, A.J., Zeliadt, S. & Benitez, D. (2009) Development and validation of the mindful eating questionnaire. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(8), 1439–1444.
  4. Hulbert-Williams, L., Nicholls, W., Joy, J. & Hulbert-Williams, N. (2014) Initial validation of the mindful eating scale. Mindfulness, 5(6), 719–729
  5. Evelyn Tribole. The science of intuitive eating. Available from: Accessed August 2023
  6. Van Dyke, N., & Drinkwater, E. (2014). Review Article Relationships between intuitive eating and health indicators: Literature review. Public Health Nutrition, 17(8), 1757-1766. doi:10.1017/S1368980013002139
  7. Linardon, J, Tylka, TL, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M. Intuitive eating and its psychological correlates: A meta-analysis. Int J Eat Disord. 2021; 54: 1073–1098.
  8. Warren, J., Smith, N., & Ashwell, M. (2017). A structured literature review on the role of mindfulness, mindful eating and intuitive eating in changing eating behaviours: Effectiveness and associated potential mechanisms. Nutrition Research Reviews, 30(2), 272-283. doi:10.1017/S0954422417000154
  9. O'Reilly GA, Cook L, Spruijt-Metz D, Black DS. Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review. Obes Rev. 2014 Jun;15(6):453-61. doi: 10.1111/obr.12156. Epub 2014 Mar 18. PMID: 24636206; PMCID: PMC4046117.
  10. Carrière, K., Khoury, B., Günak, M. M., and Knäuper, B. (2018) Mindfulness-based interventions for weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews, 19: 164–177. doi: 10.1111/obr.12623.
  11. Masuda A, Hill ML. Mindfulness as therapy for disordered eating: a systematic review. Neuropsychiatry. 2013 Aug 1;3(4):433.
  12. Stanszus, Laura Sophie; Frank, Pascal; Geiger, Sonja Maria (2019). Healthy eating and sustainable nutrition through mindfulness? Mixed method results of a controlled intervention study. Appetite, 141(), 104325–. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2019.104325


  1. Definition of Intuitive Eating Published by Evelyn Tribole; July 17, 2019.
  2. British Heart Foundation. Heart Matters. What is intuitive eating?
  3. Mann T, Tomiyama AJ, Westling E, Lew AM, Samuels B, Chatman J. Medicare's search for effective obesity treatments: diets are not the answer. Am Psychol. 2007 Apr;62(3):220-33. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.3.220. PMID: 17469900.
  4. Erhardt GA. Intuitive eating as a counter-cultural process towards self-actualisation: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of experiences of learning to eat intuitively. Health Psychol Open. 2021 Mar 10;8(1):20551029211000957. doi: 10.1177/20551029211000957. PMID: 33786195; PMCID: PMC7961715.
  5. Bacon L, Stern JS, Van Loan MD, Keim NL. Size acceptance and intuitive eating improve health for obese, female chronic dieters. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Jun;105(6):929-36. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2005.03.011. PMID: 15942543.
  6. Bruce LJ, Ricciardelli LA. A systematic review of the psychosocial correlates of intuitive eating among adult women. Appetite. 2016 Jan 1;96:454-472. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2015.10.012. Epub 2015 Oct 22. PMID: 26474781.
  7. Sairanen E, Tolvanen A, Karhunen L, Kolehmainen M, Järvelä E, Rantala S, Peuhkuri K, Korpela R, Lappalainen R. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness explain intuitive eating in overweight adults. Behav Modif. 2015 Jul;39(4):557-79. doi: 10.1177/0145445515576402. Epub 2015 Mar 25. PMID: 25810381.
  8. Denny KN, Loth K, Eisenberg ME, Neumark-Sztainer D. Intuitive eating in young adults. Who is doing it, and how is it related to disordered eating behaviours? Appetite. 2013 Jan;60(1):13-19. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.09.029. Epub 2012 Oct 11. PMID: 23063606; PMCID: PMC3511603.
  9. Tribole E, Resch E (2012) Intuitive Eating, 3rd edn, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  10. Beth Docherty (2023) Intuitive Eating Simplified, 1st edn.
  11. Very Well Health. A Guide on Intuitive Eating. Lindsey DeSoto, RD, LD. Updated March 10, 2023.
  12. Van Dyke N, Drinkwater EJ. Relationships between intuitive eating and health indicators: literature review. Public Health Nutr. 2014 Aug;17(8):1757-66. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013002139. Epub 2013 Aug 21. PMID: 23962472; PMCID: PMC10282369.
  13. The Difference Between Intuitive Eating and Mindful Eating. Published by The Original Intuitive Eating Pros. November 17, 2010.
  14. Types of eating disorders: what are eating disorders?
  15. Bennett BL, Latner JD (2022).Mindful eating, intuitive eating, and the loss of control over eating. Eating Behaviours, Vol 47.
  16. Katcher JA, Suminski RR, Pacanowski CR. Impact of an Intuitive Eating Intervention on Disordered Eating Risk Factors in Female-Identifying Undergraduates: A Randomized Waitlist-Controlled Trial. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Sep 23;19(19):12049. doi: 10.3390/ijerph191912049. PMID: 36231362; PMCID: PMC9566585.


  1. UNICEF (2023). The Benefits of Breastfeeding. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 10 October 2023]
  2. World Health Organisation (2023). Breastfeeding. [Online] Available at:,the%20ideal%20food%20for%20infants [Accessed 10 October 2023]
  3. Berger PK, Plows JF, Demerath EW & Fields DA (2020). Carbohydrate Composition in Breast Milk and Its Effect on Infant Health. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 23(4), 277-281
  4. Rasmussen B, Ennis M, Pencharz P, Ball R, Courtney-Martin G & Elango R (2020). Protein Requirements of Healthy Lactating Women are Higher than the Current Recommendations. Current Developments in Nutrition, 4(Suppl 2), 653. Published online 2020. [Available at:]
  5. Bzikowska-Jura A et al (2019). The Concentration of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Milk Is Related to Their Habitual but Not Current Intake. Nutrients, 11(7), 1585. Published online 2019 Jul 12. doi: 10.3390/nu11071585. PMCID: PMC6683022. PMID: 31336991. [Available at:] [Accessed 20/3/2023]
  6. Meldrum S, Heaton A, Foster J, Prescott S & Simmer K (2020). Do infants of breastfeeding mothers benefit from additional long-chain PUFA from fish oil? A 6-year follow-up. British Journal of Nutrition, 124(7), 701-708. doi: 10.1017/S000711452000135X. [Available at:] [Accessed October 2023]
  7. Valencia-Naranjo A, Manjarres-Correa LM & Bermúdez-Cardona J (2022). Pilot study of the effect of EPA + DHA supplementation on the fatty acid profile of erythrocytes and breast milk of lactating women from Sonsón, Colombia. Current Research in Food Science, 5, 789-797. [Available at:] [Accessed October 2023]
  9. National Institute of Child Health and Development (2017). When breastfeeding, how many calories should moms and babies consume? [Online] Available at: [accessed October 2023]
  10. British Dietetic Association (2023). Calcium Food Fact Sheet. [Online] Available at: [Accessed October 2023]
  11. British Dietetic Association. (Year). Iodine Food Fact Sheet. [Online] Available at:,the%20brain%20is%20still%20developing [Accessed October 2023]
  12. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2023). Mother’s Diet. [Online] Available at: [Accessed October 2023]
  13. Manousou S, Augustin H, Eggertsen R, Hulthén L & Filipsson Nyström H (2020). Inadequate Iodine Intake in Lactating Women in Sweden: A Pilot 1-Year, Prospective, Observational Study. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecological Sacndinavica [Online] First published on September 3, 2020. Available at; [Accessed October 2023]
  14. Derbyshire E (2019). Could we be overlooking a potential choline crisis in the United Kingdom? BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health. [Online] Available at: [Accessed October 2023]
  15. National Institute of Health (2023). Choline Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. [Online] Available at: [Accessed October 2023]
  16. Warwick University (2018). Inadequate evidence to guide caffeine intake for breastfeeding mothers, review finds. [Online] Available at: [Accessed October 2023]
  17. La Leche League International (2021). Breastfeeding info Caffeine. [Online] Available at:
  18. National Library of Medicine (2023). Vitamin A. [Online] Available at:,or%20less%20is%20400%20mcg [Accessed October 2023]
  19. NHS (2023). Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and fertility while taking colecalciferol. [Online] Available at: [Accessed October 2023]
  20. British Dietetic Association (2023). Nutritional Considerations for Dietitians. [Online] Available at: [Accessed October 2023]
  21. Friel J, Qasem W & Cai C (2018). Iron and the Breastfed Infant. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 7(4), 54. [Available at:] [Accessed October 2023]
  22. WHO Programme of Nutrition (1998). Complementary Feeding of Young Children in Developing Countries: A Review of Current Scientific Knowledge. World Health Organisation. [Online] Available at: [Accessed October 2023]


  3.; )
  5. )
  6. )
  7. )
  8. )
  9. )
  10. )
  17. ;


  1. Red Cross (2023). Food insecurity: how food shortages can cause a humanitarian crisis. Accessed on 9th September 2023 at
  2. Food Foundation (2023). Measuring household food insecurity in the UK and why we MUST do it: 4 facts you should know. Accessed on 9th September 2023 at
  3. Food Foundation (2023). Food Insecurity Tracking. Accessed on 9th September 2023 at
  4. Stangl AL, Earnshaw VA, Logie CH et al. The Health Stigma and Discrimination Framework: a global, crosscutting framework to inform research, intervention development, and policy on health-related stigmas. BMC Med 17, 31 (2019).
  5. ONS (2023). CPI Annual Rate 01: Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 2015=100. Accessed on 9th September 2023 at

Additional Reading around impact of food insecurity on cognition:

  1. Falkingham M, Abdelhamid A, Curtis P et al (including Dye L). The effects of oral iron supplementation on cognition in older children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr J 2010; 9: 4
  2. Adolphus K, Lawton CL, Dye L. Associations between habitual school-day breakfast consumption frequency and academic performance in british adolescents. Front Public Health 2019; 7: 283
  3. Adolphus K, Hoyland A, Walton J et al (including Dye L). Ready-to-eat cereal and milk for breakfast compared with no breakfast has a positive acute effect on cognitive function and subjective state in 11-13-year-olds: a school-based, randomised, controlled, parallel groups trial. Eur J Nutr 2021; 60(6): 3325-42


  1. Hinnen D (2017). Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists for Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum, 30(3), pp 202-210. Available from:
  2. Nauck MA & Meier JJ (2019). Are all GLP-1 agonists equal in the treatment of type 2 diabetes? Management of Endocrine Disease, 181(6), pp R211-R234. Available from:
  3. Public Health England (2014). Adult Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. Available from:
  4. Sharma D, Verma S, Vaidya S, Kalia K & Tiawri V (2018). Recent updates on GLP-1 agonists: Current advancements and challenges. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 108, pp 952-962. Available from:
  5. Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary (online) London: BMJ and Pharmaceutical Press. Available from:
  6. Trujillo JM, Nuffer W & Smith BA (2021). GLP-1 Receptor Agonists: An updated review of head-to-head clinical studies. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Available from:
  7. Pratley RE, Aroda VR, Lingvay I, Ludemann J, Andreassen C & Navarria A (2018). Semaglutide versus dulaglutide once weekly in patients with type 2 diabetes (SUSTAIN 7): a randomised, open label, phase 3b trial. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 6(4), pp P275-286. Available from:
  8. Dungan KM, Povedano ST, Forst T, Gonzalez JG, Atisso C, Seals W et al (2014). Once-weekly dulaglutide versus once-daily liraglutide in metformin treated patients with type 2 diabetes (AWARD-6): a randomised, open-label, phase 3, non-inferiority trial. The Lancet, 384(9951), pp 1349-1357. Available from:
  9. Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K et al (2016). Liraglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine, 375, pp 311-322. Available from:
  10. Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A et al (2016). Semaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine, 375, pp 1834-1844. Available from:
  11. Marx N, Husain M, Lehrke M, Verma S & Sattar N (2022). GLP-1 Receptor Agonists for the Reduction of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Circulation, 146(24), pp 1882-1894. Available from:
  12. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2022). Type 2 Diabetes in Adults: Management [NICE Guideline No.28]. Available from:
  13. Department of Health and Social Care (2023). Shortage of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Available from:

AUTISM AND DIET by Samuel Lucking RD, MSc

  1. Obsessions and repetitive behaviour (2023). If obsessions or repetitive behaviours are causing distress, read our advice on how to help. Available at: (Accessed September 2023)
  2. NICE (2020). Autism in adults: How common is it? Available at: (Accessed September 2023)
  3. Autism speaks (2023). Sensory issues. Available at: (Accessed September 2023)
  4. NHS (2022). What is Autism. Available at: (Accessed September 2023)
  5. Johnston K, Murray K, Spain D, Walker I, Russel A (2019). Executive Function: Cognition and Behaviour in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Journal of Autism and developmental disorders, 49, 4181-4192
  6. National Autistic Society (2023). Autism speaks: Sensory issues. Available at: (Accessed September 2023)
  7. National Autistic Society (2023). Sensory differences. Available at: (Accessed September 2023)
  8. National Autistic Society (2023). Eating – a guide for all audiences. Available at: (Accessed September 2023)
  9. BDA (2023). Autism and diet. Available at (Access September 2023)
  10. NICE 2021. Autism spectrum disorder in adults: diagnosis and management. Clinical guidance CG14. Available at: (Accessed September 2023)
  11. Buie, T., Campbell, D. B., Fuchs, G. J., III, Furuta, G. T., Levy, J., VandeWater, J., Whitaker, A. H., Atkins, D., Bauman, M. L., Beaudet, A. L., Carr, E. G., Gershon, M. D., Hyman, S. L., Jarapinyo, P., Jyonouchi, H., Kooros, K., Kushak, R., Levitt, P., Levy, S. E., Lewis, J. D., Murray, K. F., Natowicz, M. R., Sabra, A., Wershil, B. K., Weston, S. C., Zeltzer, L., & Winter, H. (2010). Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: a consensus report. Pediatrics, 125, S1–S18.
  12. National Autistic Society (2023) Understanding and developing communication. Available at: (Accessed September 2023)
  13. National Autistic Society (2023) Understanding and managing PICA. Available at: (Accessed September 2023)
  14. Thinking Autism (2023) Preventing Diagnostic Overshadowing and Identifying Medical Comorbidities in ASD: A summary guide sheet for healthcare professionals. Available at: (Accessed September 2023).
  15. Elder JH, Kreider CM, Schaefer NM, de Laosa MB (2015). A review of gluten- and casein-free diets for treatment of autism: 2005-2015. Nutr Diet Suppl.;7:87-101.
  16. Millward C, Ferriter M, Calver SJ, Connell-Jones GG (2008). Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder (Review). Cochrane Database syst rev
  17. Lang et al Lange KW, Hauser J, Reissmann A. Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the therapy of autism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Nov;18(6):572-5
  18. Hyman SL, Stewart PA, Foley J, Cain U, Peck R, Morris DD, Wang H, Smith T (2016). The Gluten-Free/Casein-Free Diet: A Double-Blind Challenge Trial in Children with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord. ,46(1), 205-220.ARTICLE SUBMISSION FORM 2024


  1. Barrea L, Frias-Toral E, Verde L, Ceriani F, Cucalon G, Garcia-Velasquez E et al. (2021) “PCOS and nutritional approaches: differences between lean and obese phenotype”. Metabolism Open (12) 100-123.
  2. Melin, J., Forslund, M., Alesi, S., Piltonen, T., Romualdi, D., Spritzer, P., Tay, C., Pena, A., Witchel, S., Mousa, A., and Teede, H. (2023) “The impact of metformin with or without lifestyle modification versus placebo on polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.” European Journal of Endocrinology 189, (2) 37-63
  3. Wekke, V., Van Dammen, L.,, Koning, A., Heida, K., Painter, R., and Limpens, J., et al. (2020) “Long-term cardiometabolic disease risk in women with PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Human Reproduction Update. 26 (6) 942–60.
  4. Kakoly, N., Khomami, M., Joham, A., Cooray, S., Misso, M., and Norman R, et al. (2018) “Ethnicity, obesity and the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in PCOS: a systematic review and meta-regression". Human Reproduction Update. 24 (4), 455–67.
  5. Teede, H., Tay, C., Laven, J., Dokras, A., Moran, L., Piltonen, T., Costello, M., Boivin, J., Redman, L., Boyle, J., Norman, R., Mousa, A., Joham, A. (2023) “Recommendations From the 2023 International Evidence-based Guideline for the Assessment and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 108, (10)
  6. Cassar, S., Misso, M., Hopkins, W., Shaw, C., Teede, H., and Stepto, N. (2016) “Insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies”. Human Reproduction 31 (11), 2619–2631.
  7. Mukherjee, S., and Maitra, A. (2010) “Molecular & genetic factors contributing to insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.” Indian Journal of Medical Research, 743-760
  8. Stepto, , Cassar, S., Joham, A., et al. (2013) “Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have intrinsic insulin resistance on euglycaemic–hyperinsulaemic clamp”. Human Reproduction. 28 (3), 777–784.
  9. Melin, J., Forslund, M., Alesi, S., Piltonen, T., Romualdi, D., Spritzer, P., Tay, C., Pena, A., Witchel, S., Mousa, A., and Teede, H. (2023) “The impact of metformin with or without lifestyle modification versus placebo on polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. European Journal of Endocrinology (2)189, 37–63
  10. Basset-Sagarminaga, J., Roumans, K. H., Havekes, B., Mensink, R. P., Peters, H. P., Zock, P. L., and Schrauwen-Hinderling, V. B. (2023). “Replacing Foods with a High-Glycemic Index and High in Saturated Fat by Alternatives with a Low Glycemic Index and Low Saturated Fat Reduces Hepatic Fat, Even in Isocaloric and Macronutrient Matched Conditions”. Nutrients 15 (3), 735
  11. Cincione, I.R., Graziadio, C., Marino, F., Vetrani, C., Losavio, F., Savastano, S., Colao, A., Laudisio, D. (2022) “Short-Time Effects of Ketogenic Diet or Modestly Hypocaloric Mediterranean Diet on Overweight and Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome”. Journal of Endocrinology Investigations. (46), 769–777
  12. Paoli, A., Mancin, L., Giacona, M.C., Bianco, A., and Caprio, M. (2020) “Effects of a Ketogenic Diet in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome”. Journal of Translational Medicine 18, 104
  13. Barrea, L., Arnone, A., Annunziata, G., Muscogiuri, G., Laudisio, D., Salzano, C., Pugliese, G., Colao, A., Savastano S. (2019) “Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, Dietary Patterns and Body Composition in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)” (11), 2278
  14. Marsh, K., Steinbeck, K., Atkinson, F., Petocz, P., and Brand-Miller, J. (2010). “Effect of a low glycemic index compared with a conventional healthy diet on polycystic ovary syndrome”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 92 (1), 83-92
  15. Manta, A., Paschou, S. A., Isari, G., Mavroeidi, I., Kalantaridou, S., & Peppa, M. (2023). “Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Estimates in the Dietary Approach of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome”. Nutrients, (15), 3483
  16. Butler, A. E., Moin, A. S. M., Reiner, Ž., Sathyapalan, T., Jamialahmadi, T., Sahebkar, A., and Atkin, S. L. (2023). “High density lipoprotein-associated proteins in non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome”. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 14, 1117-761.
  17. National Institute for Care and Excellence (2023) Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [online] available from Scenario: Management - adults | Management | Polycystic ovary syndrome | CKS | NICE <02/10/23>
  18. Garg D, Tal, R. (2016) “The role of AMH in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome”. Reproduction Biomed Online 33 (1), 15–28
  19. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2012) DASH Eating Plan [online] available from <DASH Eating Plan | NHLBI, NIH> [02/10/23]
  20. Cowan, S., Lim, S., Alycia, C., Pirotta, S., Thomson, R., Gibson-Helm, M., Blackmore, R., Naderpoor, N., Bennett, C., Ee, C., Rao, V., Mousa, A., Alesi, S., and Moran, L. (2023). “Lifestyle management in polycystic ovary syndrome – beyond diet and physical activity”. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 23 (14)
  21. Di Lorenzo, M., Cacciapuoti, N., Lonardo, M., Nasti, G., Gautiero, C., Belfiore, A., Guida, B., and Chiurazzi, M. (2023) “Pathophysiology and Nutritional Approaches in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Comprehensive Review”. Current Nutrition Reports. 12, 527–544
  22. Pundir, J., Psaroudakis, D., Savnur, P., Bhide, P., Sabatini, L., Teede, H. & PCOS Consensus Group (2018). “Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised trials”. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 125 (3), 299-308.
  23. Montanino Oliva, M., Buonomo, G., Calcagno, M., and Unfer, V. (2018). “Effects of myo-inositol plus alpha-lactalbumin in myo-inositol-resistant PCOS women”. Journal of Ovarian Research, 11 (1), 38
  24. Zeng, L, and Yang, K. (2018) “Effectiveness of myoinositol for polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Endocrine. 59 (1), 30–38
  25. Fatima, K., Jamil, Z., Faheem, S., Adnan, A., Javaid, S. S., Naeem, H., Mohiuddin, N., Sajid, A., & Ochani, S. (2023) “Effects of myo-inositol vs. metformin on hormonal and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS: a meta-analysis”. Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971)
  26. Lee, I., Cooney, L. G., Saini, S., Smith, M. E., Sammel, M. D., Allison, K. C., & Dokras, A. (2017). “Increased risk of disordered eating in polycystic ovary syndrome”. Fertility and sterility 107 (3), 796-802
  27. Malin, S., and Kashyap, S. (2014) “Effects of metformin on weight loss: potential mechanisms”. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity (5), 323-329
  28. Legro RS. 2016 “Ovulatory dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome: are we overtreating?” Current Pharmaceutical Design. 22 (36), 5554-5557


  1. NHS England 2023 NHS England
  2. British Dietetic Association: 2023
  3. Health Education England (2023) Health Education England | Health Education England (
  4. Birmingham primary care videos (2023) primary care website Dietitians in primary care | Health Education England (
  6. Mitchell LJ, Ball LE, Ross LJ, Barnes KA, Williams LT. Effectiveness of Dietetic Consultations in Primary Health Care: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017 Dec;117(12):1941-1962. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2017.06.364. Epub 2017 Aug 19. PMID: 28826840.
  7. Sun Y, You W, Almeida F, Estabrooks P, Davy B. The Effectiveness and Cost of Lifestyle Interventions Including Nutrition Education for Diabetes Prevention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017 Mar;117(3):404- 421.e36. doi:
  8. Williams M, Barclay Y, Benneyworth R, Gore S, Hamilton Z, Matull R, Phillips I, Seamark L, Staveley K, Thole S, Greig E. Using best practice to create a pathway to improve management of irritable bowel syndrome: aiming for timely diagnosis, effective treatment and equitable care. Frontline Gastroenterol. 2016 Oct;7(4):323- 330. doi
  9. Hoogendijk EO, Afilalo J, Ensrud KE, Kowal P, Onder G, Fried LP. Frailty: implications for clinical practice and public health. The Lancet. 2019 Oct;394(10206):1365-1375. Abstract available from:
  10. BCHUB appropriate guidance on management of nutritional supplements in primary care (2021)
  12. Collinson A, Child J, Hickson, M. The impact of dietitians in the multi-disciplinary practice team within primary care: Final report. (2020) Plymouth: University of Plymouth.


  1. Braveman P, Parker Dominguez T. Abandon "Race." Focus on Racism. Front Public Health. 2021;9:689462. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.689462
  2. Egede LE. Race, ethnicity, culture, and disparities in health care. J Gen Intern Med. Jun 2006;21(6):667-9. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.0512.x
  3. Statistics OfN. Population of England and Wales. Accessed December 19, 2021.
  4. Prevention CfDCa. National Diabetes Statistics Report. Accessed 01, 2022.
  5. Bhopal R. Glossary of terms relating to ethnicity and race: for reflection and debate. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2004;58(6):441-445. doi:10.1136/jech.2003.013466
  6. Gumber A, Gumber L. Improving prevention, monitoring and management of diabetes among ethnic minorities: contextualizing the six G’s approach. BMC Research Notes. 2017;10(1)doi:10.1186/s13104-017-3104-9
  7. Beach MC, Price EG, Gary TL, et al. Cultural Competence. Medical Care. 2005;43(4):356-373. doi:10.1097/01.mlr.0000156861.58905.96
  8. Betancourt JR, Green AR, Carrillo JE, Ananeh-Firempong O, 2nd. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public Health Rep. Jul-Aug 2003;118(4):293-302. doi:10.1093/phr/118.4.293
  9. Wallia S, Bhopal RS, Douglas A, et al. Culturally adapting the prevention of diabetes and obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) trial. Health Promotion International. 2014;29(4):768-779. doi:10.1093/heapro/dat015
  10. Patel N, Ferrer HB, Tyrer F, et al. Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Minority Ethnic Populations in the UK: a Narrative Review. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. 2017;4(6):1107-1119. doi:10.1007/s40615-016-0316-y
  11. Asamane EA, Greig CA, Aunger JA, Thompson JL. Perceptions and Factors Influencing Eating Behaviours and Physical Function in Community-Dwelling Ethnically Diverse Older Adults: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study. Nutrients. May 29 2019;11(6)doi:10.3390/nu11061224
  12. Pourabbasi A, Akbari Ahangar A, Nouriyengejeh S. Value-based eating habits; exploring religio-cultural nutritional behavior norms. J Diabetes Metab Disord. Jun 2021;20(1):187-192. doi:10.1007/s40200-021-00728-z
  13. Jepson RG, Harris FM, Platt S, Tannahill C. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews. BMC Public Health. 2010;10(1):538. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-538
  14. Jager MJ, Van Der Sande R, Essink-Bot M-L, Van Den Muijsenbergh METC. Views and experiences of ethnic minority diabetes patients on dietetic care in the Netherlands – a qualitative study. European Journal of Public Health. 2019;29(2):208-213. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cky186
  15. Bhupathiraju SN, Hu FB. Epidemiology of Obesity and Diabetes and Their Cardiovascular Complications. Circulation Research. 2016;118(11):1723-1735. doi:10.1161/circresaha.115.306825
  16. Ponzo V, Scumaci E, Goitre I, et al. Predictors of attrition from a weight loss program. A study of adult patients with obesity in a community setting. Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity. 2021;26(6):1729-1736. doi:10.1007/s40519-020-00990-9
  17. Jiandani D, Wharton S, Rotondi MA, Ardern CI, Kuk JL. Predictors of early attrition and successful weight loss in patients attending an obesity management program. BMC Obesity. 2016;3(1)doi:10.1186/s40608-016-0098-0
  18. World Health Organisation. Adherence to long-term therapies : evidence for action / [edited by Eduardo Sabaté]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.
  19. Gibson A, Sainsbury A. Strategies to Improve Adherence to Dietary Weight Loss Interventions in Research and Real-World Settings. Behavioral Sciences. 2017;7(3):44. doi:10.3390/bs7030044
  20. Rawal L, Sahle BW, Smith BJ, Kanda K, Owusu-Addo E, Renzaho AMN. Lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes management among migrants and ethnic minorities living in industrialised countries: a systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care. 2021;9(1):e001924. doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001924
  21. Andermann A. Taking action on the social determinants of health in clinical practice: a framework for health professionals. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2016;188(17-18):E474-E483. doi:10.1503/cmaj.160177
  22. Abate N, Chandalia M. The impact of ethnicity on type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. Jan-Feb 2003;17(1):39-58. doi:10.1016/s1056-8727(02)00190-3
  23. Alderwick H, Dixon J. The NHS long term plan. BMJ. 2019:l84. doi:10.1136/bmj.l84
  24. Kwame A, Petrucka PM. A literature-based study of patient-centered care and communication in nurse-patient interactions: barriers, facilitators, and the way forward. BMC Nursing. 2021;20(1)doi:10.1186/s12912-021-00684-2
  25. Helland MH, Nordbotten GL. Dietary Changes, Motivators, and Barriers Affecting Diet and Physical Activity among Overweight and Obese: A Mixed Methods Approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health. Oct 9 2021;18(20)doi:10.3390/ijerph182010582
  26. Al Shamsi H, Almutairi AG, Al Mashrafi S, Al Kalbani T. Implications of Language Barriers for Healthcare: A Systematic Review. Oman Med J. Mar 2020;35(2):e122. doi:10.5001/omj.2020.40
  27. Pooja Dhir TSE, Kevin J. Drew, Maria Maynard, James Nobles, Catherine Homer, Louisa Ells. Views, perceptions, and experiences of type 2 diabetes or weight management programmes among minoritised ethnic groups living in high-income countries: A systematic review of qualitative evidence. (Under Review). Obesity Reviews. 2023;


  1. Health and Care Professions Council (2023). Standards of proficiency: Dietitians. Available at:
  2. Health and Care Professions Council (2014). Professionalism in healthcare professionals. Available at:
  3. Cruess RL, Cruess SR, Boudreau JD, Snell L, Steinert Y (2014). Reframing Medical Education to Support Professional Identity Formation. Academic Medicine 89(11), p 1446-1451
  4. Cruess RL, Cruess SR, Steinert Y (2008). Role modelling – making the most of a powerful teaching strategy. British Medical Journal, 89(11), p 1446-1451
  5. Hickson M et al (2018). Future Dietitian 2025: informing the development of a workforce strategy for dietetics. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics. [Online] 31 (1), 23-32
  6. Bandura A (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 1-26
  7. Schunk DH & Usher EL (2019). Social cognitive theory and motivation. In RM Ryan (Ed), The Oxford handbook of human motivation (2nd ed. pp. 11-26). Oxford University Press

THE LAST WORD by Fareeha Jay RD

  1. Britannica (no date) Myth and History. Available at:
  2. Moreno-Rodríguez VP, Sánchez-Cabrero R, Abad-Mancheño A, Juanes-García A, Martínez-López F (2021). Food and Nutrition Myths among Future Secondary School Teachers: A Problem of Trust in Inadequate Sources of Information. MDPI. Available at:
  3. Ethel Shanas (1979). Social Myth as Hypothesis: The Case of the Family Relations of Old People.The Gerontologist, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 3-9.
  4. Siddiqui S, Ahmad M and Hanif A (2011). Association Between Intake of Milk or Other Dairy Products along with Fish Meat and Development of Vitiligo. Journal of SIMS. Available at:
  5. NHS (2019). Vitiligo. Available at:
  6. BDA (2019). Dairy Benefits. Available at:
  7. McGrane M, Essery E, Lyon J, Macneil P, Spahn J, Horn L (2012). Dairy consumption, blood pressure , and risk of hypertension: An evidence-based review of recent literature. PMC,
  8. Fahy J, Dickey B (2010). Airway mucus function and dysfunction. The new England journal of medicine. Available at:
  9. Pinnock CB, Graham NM, Mylvaganam A, Douglas RM (1990). Relationship between milk intake and mucus production in adult volunteers challenged with rhinovirus 2. Am Rev Respir;141(2): 352-6. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm/141.2.352. PMID: 2154152
  10. NHS (2022). Causes: Kidney Stones. Available at:
  11. North Bristol NHS Trust (2019). Advice for patients prevention of kidney stones . Available at:
  12. Raiola A, Rigano M, Calafirre R, Frusciante L, Barone A (2014). Enhancing the health promoting effects of tomato fruit and biofortified food. Available at:
  13. National Kidney Foundation (2023). Tomatoes .Available at: