MYTH BUSTING WITH MADI MYERS - NUMBER 5: THE BLOOD TYPE DIET

  1. Sharon and Lis (2004). History of lectins: from hemagglutinins to biological recognition molecules. Glycobiol. 14(11): 53R-62R. https://doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwh122
  2. Yamamoto et al (2012). ABO research in the modern era of genomics. Transfus Med Rev. 26(2): 103-18. doi: 10.1016/j.tmrv.2011.08.002
  3. Cusack et al (2013). Blood type diets lack supporting evidence: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 98(1): 99-104. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.058693
  4. Wang et al (2018). ABO Genotype Does Not Modify the Association between the ‘Blood-Type’ Diet and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Disease in Overweight Adults. J Nutr. 148(4): 518-525. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxx074
  5. Saitou et al (1997). Evolution of Primate ABO Blood Group Genes and Their Homologous Genes. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (4): 399-411


DIVERSITY IN DIETETICS
by Ruth Rundell

  1. HCPC Diversity Data Report hcpc-diversity-data-report-2021.pdf (hcpc-uk.org)
  2. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion Policy 2018-2020 edi-policy.pdf edi-(hcpc-uk.org) (hcpc-uk.org)
  3. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion (EDI) action plan 2019-2020 edi-action-plan-2019-2020.pdf (hcpc-uk.org)
  4. Swihart DL, Yarrarapu SNS, Martin RL. Cultural Religious Competence in Clinical Practice. 2021 Nov 17. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan. PMID: 29630268


THE ROLE OF ADDED SUGARS IN INFLAMMATION AND OBESITY
by Barira Saad, RD, MBDA

  1. https://www.bda.uk.com/resource/fruit-and-vegetables-how-to-get-five-a-day.html
  2. https://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/the-sweet-danger-of-sugar
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5174142/
  4. https://examine.com/topics/inflammation/
  5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25905791/
  6. https://examine.com/members/deep-dives/article/have-the-fructose-alarm-bells-rang-too-soon/
  7. https://www.worldobesity.org/about/about-obesity
  8. https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/national-child-measurement-programme
  9. https://www.bda.uk.com/resource/sugar.html
  10. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41574-021-00627-6#ref-CR6
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391470/
  12. https://www.bmj.com/company/newsroom/achieving-sugar-reduction-targets-could-cut-child-obesity-and-healthcare-costs/
  13. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/promotions-of-unhealthy-foods-restricted-from-october-2022
  14. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg43/chapter/1-Guidance#public-health-recommendations


NUTRITION AND AGEING
by Madi Myers

  1. Wilmanski et al (2021). Gut microbiome pattern reflects healthy ageing and predicts survival in humans. Nat Metab. 3(2): 274-286. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00348-0
  2. Lonnie et al (2018). Protein for Life: Review of Optimal Protein Intake, Sustainable Dietary Sources and the Effect on Appetite in Ageing Adults. Nutrients. 10(3): 360. doi:10.3390/nu10030360
  3. Russell (2001). Factors in Aging that Effect the Bioavailability of Nutrients. J Nutr. 131(4): 1359S-1361S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.4.1359S
  4. Gopinath et al (2016). Association Between Carbohydrate Nutrition and Successful Aging Over 10 Years. J Gerontol. Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glw091
  5. Walls and Steele (2004). The relationship between oral health and nutrition in older people. Mech Age Dev. 125(12): 853-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2004.07.011
  6. Trichopoulou et al (2005). Modified Mediterranean diet and survival: EPIC-elderly prospective cohort study. BMJ. 330(7498): 991. doi: 10.1136/bmj.38415.644155.8F


NHD FACT FILE: COW’S MILK ALLERGY

  1. NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries (last updated 2021). Cow's milk allergy in children. https://cks.nice.org.uk/topics/cows-milk-allergy-in-children/
  2. Caffarelli C, Baldi F, Bendandi B, Calzone L, Marani M, Pasquinelli P. EWGPAG. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide. Ital J Pediatr. 2010 Jan 15; 36:5. doi: 10.1186/1824-7288-36-5. PMID: 20205781; PMCID: PMC2823764
  3. Vandenplas Y, Brueton M, Dupont C et al. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2007. 92(10), 902-908
  4. Venter C, Pereira B, Voigt K, Grundy J, Clayton CB, Higgins B, Arshad SH, Dean T. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of food hypersensitivity in the first 3 years of life. Allergy. 2008 Mar; 63(3): 354-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2007.01570.x. Epub 2007 Dec 5. PMID: 18053008
  5. https://www.allergyuk.org/about-allergy/allergy-in-childhood/cows-milk-allergy/#:~:text=Cow's%20milk%20allergy%20(also%20known,system%20to%20be%20'sensitised'.
  6. The Milk Allergy in Primary Care (MAP) Guideline 2019. https://gpifn.org.uk/imap/
  7. BDA Milk allergy food fact sheet. https://www.bda.uk.com/resource/milk-allergy.html#:~:text=What%20is%20cow's%20milk%20allergy,or%20breathing%20difficulties%20(rare)
  8. Joanne Walsh, Rosan Meyer, Neil Shah. Differentiating milk allergy (IgE and non-IgE mediated) from lactose intolerance: understanding the underlying mechanisms and presentations
  9. Schoemaker AA, Sprikkelman AB, Grimshaw KE et al (2015). Incidence and natural history of challenge-proven cows' milk allergy in European children – EuroPrevall birth cohort. Allergy 70(8), 963-972
  10. Whittaker H (2022). Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA): misdiagnosis and management. NHD March 2022, issue 170
  11. NHS Lactose intolerance. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/lactose-intolerance/treatment/#children
  12. Breastfeeding recommendations. https://www.who.int/health-topics/breastfeeding#tab=tab_2
  13. https://gpifn.org.uk/formula-feeding-a-baby-with-cma/
  14. Fiocchi A et al (2010). World Allergy Organisation (WAO) Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow’s Milk Allergy (DRACMA) Guidelines. https://www.bsaci.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/DRACMAguidelines1.pdf
  15. Motala C, Fiocchi A [updated] (2011). Cow's Milk Allergy in Children. World Allergy Organisation (WAO). https://www.worldallergy.org/education-and-programs/education/allergic-disease-resource-center/professionals/cows-milk-allergy-in-children


SPECIAL INFANT FEEDS AND FORMULAS
by Aqsa Mahmood, ANutr

  1. NHS (2020). Types of Formula Milk. [online]. nhs.uk. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/baby/breastfeeding-and-bottle-feeding/bottle-feeding/types-of-formula/
  2. kidswithfoodallergies.org (nd). Formula Options for Infants with food allergies [online]. Available at: https://www.kidswithfoodallergies.org/formula-options-for-infants-with-food-allergies.aspx
  3. Parents who are bottle feeding: the health professionals’ guide [online]. Available at: https://www.unicef.org.uk/babyfriendly/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2016/12/Health-professionals-guide-to-infant-formula.pdf
  4. NCT (National Childbirth Trust (2019). What’s the best kind of formula milk? [online]. Available at: https://www.nct.org.uk/baby-toddler/feeding/early-days/whats-best-kind-formula-milk
  5. SACN Statement on 'Good-Night Milks' – 2008. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/339388/SACN_Statement_on_Good-Night_Milks_2008.pdf


POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME: A MULTISYSTEM ENDOCRINE DISORDER
by Shazia Faisal

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  2. Bozdag G, Mumusoglu S, Zengin D, Karabulut E, Yildiz BO. The prevalence and phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2016 Dec; 31(12): 2841-2855. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dew218. Epub 2016 Sep 22. PMID: 27664216
  3. Deswal R, Narwal V, Dang A, Pundir CS. The Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Brief Systematic Review. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2020;13(4): 261-271. doi: 10.4103/jhrs.JHRS_ninety-five_18
  4. Walters KA, Gilchrist RB, Ledger WL, Teede HJ, Handelsman DJ, Campbell RE. New perspectives on the pathogenesis of PCOS: neuroendocrine origins. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 2018
  5. Rosenfield RL, Ehrmann DA. The pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the hypothesis of PCOS as functional ovarian hyperandrogenism revisited. Endocrine Reviews. 2016;37(5):467–520
  6. Gilbert E.W., Tay C.T., Hiam D.S., Teede H., Moran L.J. Comorbidities, and complications of polycystic ovary syndrome: an overview of systematic reviews. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxf) 2018
  7. Baskind NE, Balen AH. Hypothalamic-pituitary, ovarian and adrenal contributions to polycystic ovary syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 Nov; 37:80-97. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2016.03.005. Epub 2016 Apr 1. PMID: 27137106.
  8. Legro R.S., Castracane V.D., Kauffman R.P. Detecting insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome: purposes and pitfalls. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. 2004;59(2):141–154. 
  9. Rojas J., Chavez M., Olivar L., Rojas M., Morillo J., Mejias J. Polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin resistance, and obesity: navigating the pathophysiologic labyrinth. International Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2014; 2014:719050.
  10. Ding H, Zhang J, Zhang F, Zhang S, Chen X, Liang W, Xie Q. Resistance to the Insulin and Elevated Level of Androgen: A Major Cause of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Oct 20; 12:741764. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.741764. PMID: 34745009; PMCID: PMC8564180.
  11. Bergman RN, Finegood DT, Kahn SE. The evolution of beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2002 Jun;32 Suppl 3:35-45. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2362.32. s3.5.x. PMID: 12028373.
  12. Wijeyaratne CN, Balen AH, Barth JH, Belchetz PE. Clinical manifestations and insulin resistance (IR) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among south Asians and Caucasians: is there a difference? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2002; 57:343–350
  13. Delitala AP, Capobianco G, Delitala G, Cherchi PL, Dessole S. Polycystic ovary syndrome, adipose tissue, and metabolic syndrome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017 Sep;296(3):405-419. doi: 10.1007/s00404-017-4429-2. Epub 2017 Jun 22. PMID: 28643028.
  14. Coviello AD, Sam S, Legro RS, Dunaif A. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in first-degree male relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome is related to high rates of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Nov;94(11):4361-6. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-1333. Epub 2009 Oct 16. PMID: 19837913; PMCID: PMC2775643.
  15. Fenichel P., Rougier C., Hieronimus S., Chevalier N. Which origin for polycystic ovaries syndrome: genetic, environmental or both? Annales d'Endocrinologie. 2017;78(3):176–185
  16. Bozdag G, Mumusoglu S, Zengin D, Karabulut E, Yildiz BO. The prevalence and phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2016 Dec;31(12):2841-2855. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dew218. Epub 2016 Sep 22. PMID: 27664216
  17. .Pasquali R. Metabolic Syndrome in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Front Horm Res. 2018; 49: 114-130. doi: 10.1159/000485995. Epub 2018 Apr 5. PMID: 29894990
  18. Pasquali R, Gambineri A: Glucose intolerance states in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest 2013; 36: 648-653
  19. Cooney LG, Lee I, Sammel MD, Dokras A. High prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2017 May 1; 32(5): 1075-1091. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dex044. PMID: 28333286
  20. Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clinical Epidemiology. 2013; 6: 1-13
  21. Teede HJ, Misso ML, Costello MF et al. Recommendations from the international evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2018; 110(3): 364-379. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.05.004
  22. Franks S, Webber LJ, Goh M, Valentine A, White DM, Conway GS. Ovarian morphology is a marker of heritable biochemical traits in sisters with polycystic ovaries. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2008; 93(9): 3396-3402
  23. Haqq, Liza et al. Effect of lifestyle intervention on the reproductive endocrine profile in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Endocrine connections vol. 3,1 36-46. 28 Feb. 2014, doi:10.1530/EC-14-0010
  24. Rocha AL, Oliveira FR, Azevedo RC et al. Recent advances in the understanding and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. F1000Res. 2019; 8: F1000 Faculty Rev-565. Published 2019 Apr 26. doi:10.12688/f1000research.15318.1
  25. Moran LJ, Hutchison SK, Norman RJ, Teede HJ. Lifestyle changes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;(2): CD007506. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007506.pub2. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; (7): CD007506. PMID: 21328294
  26. Moran LJ, Ko H, Misso M, Marsh K, Noakes M, Talbot M, Frearson M, Thondan M, Stepto N, Teede HJ. Dietary composition in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review to inform evidence-based guidelines. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Apr; 113(4): 520-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.11.018. Epub 2013 Feb 16. PMID: 23420000
  27. Marsh K, Steinbeck KS, Atkinson FS et al (2010). Effect of a low glycaemic index compared with a conventional healthy diet on polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 83-92
  28. Mehrabani HH, Salehpour S and Amiri Z (2012). Beneficial effects of a high-protein, low-glycemic-load hypocaloric diet in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome
  29. Women’s Health.Diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. https://www.guidelines.co.uk/womens-health/pcos-uk-guideline/236071.article
  30. Li YJ, Han Y, He B. Effects of bariatric surgery on obese polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases. 2019; 15(6): 942-950
  31. Stepto NK, Patten RK, Tassone EC, Misso ML, Brennan L, Boyle J, Boyle RA, Harrison CL, Hirschberg AL, Marsh K, Moreno-Asso A, Redman L, Thondan M, Wijeyaratne C, Teede HJ, Moran LJ. Exercise Recommendations for Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Is the Evidence Enough? Sports Med. 2019 Aug; 49(8): 1143-1157. doi: 10.1007/s40279-019-01133-6. PMID: 31166000; PMCID: PMC6905185
  32. Cooney LG, Lee I, Sammel MD, Dokras A. High prevalence of moderate and severe depressive and anxiety symptoms in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2017 May 1; 32(5): 1075-1091. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dex044. PMID: 28333286
  33. Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Woman’s Health. 2011 Feb 8; 3:25-35. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S11304. PMID: 21339935; PMCID: PMC3039006
  34. Luque-Ramírez M, Nattero-Chávez L, Ortiz Flores AE et al. Combined oral contraceptives and/or antiandrogens versus insulin sensitisers for polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod update. 2018; 24: 225-41
  35. Dunaif A. Drug insight: insulin-sensitising drugs in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome - a reappraisal. Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2008; 4(5): 272-283
  36. Brandt S.J., Gotz A., Tschop M.H., Muller T.D. Gut hormone polyagonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. 2018; 100:190–201
  37. Han Y, Li Y, He B. GLP-1 receptor agonists versus metformin in PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Reproductive BioMedicine Online. 2019; 39(2): 332-342


ENTERAL FEEDING VIA PUMP OR BOLUS
by Katy Stuart, RD, MSC, SP

  1. BAPEN (2016). https://www.bapen.org.uk/nutrition-support/enteral-nutrition
  2. Shield Health Care (2019). http://www.shieldhealthcare.com/community/nutrition/2019/05/24/bolus-syringe-gravity-and-pump-feeds/
  3. Danielle E Bear, Hart N and Puthuchearye Z (2018). Continuous or intermittent feeding: pros and cons
  4. Bolus, gravity and intermittent Feeding (2022). https://www.feedingtubeawareness.org/bolus-gravity/
  5. Nutricia (2017). https://www.nutricia.co.uk/content/dam/dam/amn/local/gb/approved/nutricia/bolus-feeding-in-adults-practical-guide.pdf
  6. Ichimaru S Teruyoshi A (2014). Intermittent and Bolus Methods of Feeding in Critical Care. Diet and Nutrition in Critical Care p 1-17
  7. Ichimaru S (2018). Methods of Enteral Nutrition Administration in Critically Ill Patients: Continuous, Cyclic, Intermittent and Bolus Feeding. Review Nutr Clin Pract, 2018 Dec; 33(6): 790-795. doi: 10.1002
  8. Hubbard G, Andrews S, White S, Simpson G, White S, Simpson G, Topen S, Carnie L, Murphy C, Collins R, Davies J, Owen A, Ridgway J, Lenchner J, Faerber J, Pearce L, Meanwell H, Kominek N, Stark L, Best H, Simons R, Cross T, Stratton R (2019). A survey of bolus tube feeding prevalence and practice in adult patients requiring home enteral tube feeding British Journal of Nutrition 122, 1271-1278
  9. CCSG of the BDA. COVID-19 Bolus Feeding Guidelines (2019). Viewed on 05 May 2022. Available at: https://www.bda.uk.com/uploads/assets/b1018bd5-7b27-4099-a1997d4f6735dc6b/200421-COVID-19-Bolus-Feeding-Guideline-CCSG.pdf
  10. Curral C. Bolus Feeding (2017). Clinical Nutrition. Viewed on 05 May 2022. Available at: http://nutrition2me.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/www.nutrition2me.com_images_free-view-articles_bolusfeeding2017.pdf
  11. Abbott Nutrition (2018). Bolus Feeding Key Considerations for Optimal Outcomes Viewed online 05 May 2022. Available at: https://static-nocdn.abbottnutrition.com/cms/preview-web8/abbottnutrition-2016.com/img/reprint-Bolus-Feeding-Abbott.pdf


INTUITIVE EATING: THE WHAT, THE WHY, THE WHO AND THE HOW
by Priya Tew

  1. Myers M (2022). Myth Busting with Madi: The intuitive eating concept. Network Health Digest May 2022, issue 172, p8
  2. The Intuitive Eating Workbook by Evelyn Tribole and Elyse Resch
  3. Van Dyke N, Drinkwater EJ. Relationships between intuitive eating and health indicators: literature review. Public Health Nutr. 2014 Aug; 17(8): 1757-66. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013002139. Epub 2013 Aug 21. PMID: 23962472
  4. Schaefer JT, Magnuson AB. A review of interventions that promote eating by internal cues. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 May; 114(5): 734-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.12.024. Epub 2014 Mar 14. PMID: 24631111
  5. Hazzard VM, Telke SE, Simone M, Anderson LM, Larson NI, Neumark-Sztainer D. Intuitive eating longitudinally predicts better psychological health and lower use of disordered eating behaviors: findings from EAT 2010-2018. Eat Weight Disord. 2021 Feb;26(1):287-294. doi: 10.1007/s40519-020-00852-4. Epub 2020 Jan 31. PMID: 32006391; PMCID: PMC7392799.
  6. Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R. EAT 2010-2018: A Longitudinal, Multi-Contextual Study of Weight-related Problems. University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, United States. https://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-HL127077-02


THE RENAL DIET: SOURCING THE BEST RESOURCES
by Katy Stuart, RD, MSC, SP

  1. NICE, (2021). CKD Assessment and Management. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng203
  2. Stevenson J (2018). Patients following a renal diet say conflicting advice, social issues can impact success. Published on Helio.com/news/nephrology
  3. Johnson A, Sandford J (2005). Written and verbal information versus verbal information only for patients being discharged from acute hospital settings to home: systematic review. Health Education Research, Vol 20 [4], p 423-429 https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyg141
  4. IAPO (2017). Patient information Health and Literacy. Available at https://www.iapo.org.uk/
  5. Renal Nutrition Group of the BDA (2021). Available at: https://www.bda.uk.com/specialist-groups-and-branches/renal-nutrition-specialist-group.html
  6. Lambert K, Mullan J, Mansfield K, Own P (2017). Should We Recommend Renal Diet–Related Apps to Our Patients? An Evaluation of the Quality and Health Literacy Demand of Renal Diet-Related Mobile Applications. Journal of Renal Nutrition Vol 27, [6], p 430-438
  7. Jackson L, Ritchie C, Ruddock N, Sadler H of the RNG (BDA) (2021). The Appraisal and Validation of Renal Specific Dietary Applications for Patients with Kidney Disease. Available at: https://www.bda.uk.com/uploads/assets/bae87516-fb22-435a-b24e860f278ed12b/The-Appraisal-and-Validation-of-Renal-Specific-Dietary-Apps-for-Patients-with-Kidney-Disease.pdf
  8. Lambert K (2017). Evaluation of the quality and health literacy demand of online renal diet information. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 30(5) DOI:10.1111/jhn.12466
  9. Duman M (2003). Producing Patient Information – How to Research, Develop and Produce Effective Information Resources. Health Expect. Kings Fund. Sep; 6(3) p 274-275.
  10. The Patients’ Association (2020). Finding trustworthy information online. Available at: https://www.patients-association.org.uk/finding-trustworthy-information-online
  11. Patient Research Exchange (2017). Why is high quality health information important for patients. Available at: https://www.patientresearchexchange.org/stories/detail/why-is-high-quality-health-information-important-for-patients
  12. Clarke M, Moore J, Steege L (2015). Health information needs, sources, and barriers of primary care patients to achieve patient-centred care: A literature review. Available at: ttps://doi.org/10.1177%2F1460458215602939
  13. Sight Loss Council (2021). Accessible Information Standards. Available at: https://www.sightlosscouncils.org.uk/campaigns/accessible-information-standard/
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  15. Hammar T, Nilsson L, Hovsatdius B (2016). Patients’ views on electronic patient information leaflets. Pharmacy Practical (Granada) Vol 14 no 2. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2016.02.70
  16. Thurston M, Thurston A (2010). Accessibility of health information for blind and partially sighted people. Available at: https://www.rnib.org.uk/sites/default/files/accessibility_healthcare_information.pdf
  17. RNG (2018). Working Group on Phosphate Additives. Available at: https://www.bda.uk.com/specialist-groups-and-branches/renal-nutrition-specialist-group
  18. Roe J, Warthon-Medina M, Pinchin M, Barrett M, Perry S (2018). Phosphorus in food: limitations of food composition data. Journal of kidney care, Vol 3, No 6. Available at: https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/full/10.12968/jokc.2018.3.6.362
  19. Greenfield H, Southgate D (2003). Food Composition Data – Product Management and Use. Available at: https://www.fao.org/3/y4705e/y4705e.pdf
  20. Kidney Care UK (2022). Lifestyle, Diet and Fluids. Available at: https://www.kidneycareuk.org/about-kidney-health/living-kidney-disease/lifestyle/
  21. Wiljer D, Catton P (2003). Multimedia Formats for Patient Education and Health Communication: Does User Preference Matter? J Med Internet. 5(3) doi: 10.2196/jmir.5.3.e19
  22. Food Databanks (2022). National Capability Extended Dataset (based on PHE’s McCance and Widdowson’s Composition of Foods Integrated Dataset). Available at: https://quadram.ac.uk/UKfoodcomposition/
  23. Food Manufacturers (2022). Nutrition Database. Available at: https://www.foodmanufacture.co.uk/Article/2019/04/01/Food-manufacturers-given-access-to-UK-nutrition-database