References November issue 176


  4. Data from 2022 Breakfast Cereals and Yogurts with Packaging that may Appeal to Children for the Broken Plate Report. Kellogg's Fruit Loop Marshmallows 17g/serving Yoplait Petits Filous Greek Style Fruit Flavoured Layers 14.9g/serving (3rd highest sugar/serving yogurt chosen as most realistic to have at breakfast


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by Magdalena Marciniak, RD

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  2. Kurien M, Evans KE, Leeds JS, et al. Bile acid malabsorption: an under-investigated differential diagnosis in patients presenting with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome type symptoms. Scand J Gastroenterol 2011;46:818–22
  3. Walters JR, Pattni SS. Managing bile acid diarrhoea. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2010 Nov;3(6):349-57. doi: 10.1177/1756283X10377126. PMID: 21180614; PMCID: PMC3002596.
  4. Stacey R., Green J.T. Radiation-induced small bowel disease: Latest developments and clinical guidance.  Adv. Chronic Dis. 2014;5:15–29. doi: 10.1177/2040622313510730.
  5. Danielsson A., Nyhlin H., Persson H., Stendahl U., Stenling R., Suhr O. Chronic diarrhoea after radiotherapy for gynaecological cancer: Occurrence and aetiology. 1991;32:1180–1187. doi: 10.1136/gut.32.10.1180.
  6. Poon, D., Law, G. R., Major, G., Andreyev, H. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of non-malignant, organic gastrointestinal disorders misdiagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome. Scientific reports. 2022, 12;1:1949.
  7. Farrugia A., Arasaradnam R. Frontline Gastroenterology 2021;12:500–507.
  8. Fromm, H., Malavolti, M. Bile acid-induced diarrhoea. Clinics in gastroenterology. 1986; 15:3: 567-82.
  9. Walters, J. Bile acid diarrhoea and FGF19: new views on diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapy. Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology2014;11:7: 426-34. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2014.32
  10. Sadik, Riadh et al. Accelerated regional bowel transit and overweight shown in idiopathic bile acid malabsorption. The American journal of gastroenterology2004;99:4: 711-8. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.04139.x
  11. Thaysen EH, Pedersen L. Idiopathic acid catharsis. Gut 1976; 17:965-970
  12. Walters JRF, Arasaradnam R, Andreyev HJN, et al. Diagnosis and management of bile acid diarrhoea: a survey of UK expert opinion and practice. Frontline Gastroenterol 2020;11:358–63.
  13. Arasaradnam RP, Brown S, Forbes A, et al. Guidelines for the investigation of chronic diarrhoea in adults: British Society of gastroenterology, 3rd edition. Gut 2018;67:1380–99.
  14. Walters JRF, Arasaradnam R, Andreyev HJN, et al Diagnosis and management of bile acid diarrhoea: a survey of UK expert opinion and practice Frontline Gastroenterology 2020;11:358-363.
  15. National Institute for Health and Excellence (NICE) 2021. SeHCAT (tauroselcholic [75 selenium] acid) for diagnosing bile acid diarrhoea
  16. Watson L., Lalji A., Bodla S., Muls A., Andreyev H.J.N., Shaw C. Management of bile acid malabsorption using low-fat dietary interventions: A useful strategy applicable to some patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome?  Med. 2015;15:536–540. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.15-6-536.
  17. Jackson A, Lalji A, Kabir M, et al. The efficacy of a low-fat diet to manage the symptoms of bile acid malabsorption - outcomes in patients previously treated for cancer. Clin Med (Lond). 2017;17(5):412-418. doi:10.7861/clinmedicine.17-5-412
  18. Borel P, Desmarchelier C. Bioavailability of Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Phytochemicals in Humans: Effects of Genetic Variation. Annu Rev Nutr. 2018 Aug 21;38:69-96. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-082117-051628. PMID: 30130464.
  19. Zhang B, Kuipers F, de Boer JF, Kuivenhoven JA. Modulation of Bile Acid Metabolism to Improve Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Profiles. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(1):4.
  20. Vijayvargiya P, Breen-Lyles M, Nord SL, et al. Safety and Efficacy of Eluxadoline in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Diarrhea With or Without Bile Acid Diarrhea: Open-Label Study [published online ahead of print, 2022 Feb 5]. Dig Dis Sci. 2022;10.1007/s10620-022-07379-x. doi:10.1007/s10620-022-07379-x
  21. Lacy BE, Mearin F, Chang L, Chey WD, Lembo AJ, Simren M et al. Bowel disorders. Gastroenterology. 2016;150:1393-1407.e5.
  22. Jeffery I.B., Das A., O’Herlihy E., Coughlan S., Cisek K., Moore M., Bradley F., Carty T., Pradhan M., Dwibedi C., et al. Differences in Fecal Microbiomes and Metabolomes of People With vs Without Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Bile Acid Malabsorption. Gastroenterology. 2020;158:1016–1028.e8. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.11.301
  23. Merrick MV, Eastwood MA, Ford MJ. Is bile acid malabsorption underdiagnosed? An evaluation of accuracy of diagnosis by measurement of SeHCAT retention. Br Med J 1985;290:665-8.
  24. Bajor A, Kilander A, Sjövall H, Rudling M, Ung KA. The bile acid turnover rate assessed with the (75)SeHCAT test is stable in chronic diarrhoea but slightly decreased in healthy subjects after a long period of time. Dig Dis Sci 2008;53:2935-40.
  25. BADUK (2016).

by Rebecca Gasche, RD

  1. National Health Service (2019). NHS Long Term Plan. Retrieved from
  2. National Health Service: Health Education England (2021). First Contact Practitioners and Advanced Practitioners in Primary Care: (Dietitian) A Roadmap to Practice. Retrieved from:
  3. Seamark L, Barclay Y, Marchant C, Williams M and Hickson M (2021). Long‐term symptom severity in people with irritable bowel syndrome following dietetic treatment in primary care: A service evaluation. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 34(5), 890-900. 10.1111/jhn.12860
  4. National Health Service (2017). Multi-professional framework for advanced clinical practice in England. Retrieved from: