Farihah Choudhury, ANutr

  1. World Health Organisation Africa (2020). Africa eradicates polio. Available:
  2. UK. Health Matters: Public Health. Available:
  3. Theis D, White M (2021). Is Obesity Policy in England Fit for Purpose? Analysis of Government Strategies and Policies, 1992-2020. The Milibank Quarterly
  4. Jebb SA, Aveyard PN, Hawkes C. The evolution of policy and actions to tackle obesity in England. Obes Rev. 2013; 14(S2): 42‐59
  5. National Health Service (NHS) Digital. Health survey for England 2018. London, England: NHS; 2019
  6. Knai C, Petticrew M, Mays N (2016). The childhood obesity strategy BMJ; 354: i4613
  7. Public Health England. Sugar reduction: the evidence for action. 2015.
  8. Scarborough P, Adhikari V, Harrington RA, Elhussein A, Briggs A, Rayner M et al. (2020) Impact of the announcement and implementation of the UK Soft Drinks Industry Levy on sugar content, price, product size and number of available soft drinks in the UK, 2015-19: A controlled interrupted time series analysis. PLoS Med 17(2): e1003025.

Danielle Nott, RD

  1. NICE (2014). Clinical Guideline 182: Chronic kidney disease in adults: assessment and management [Online]. Available from <> [Accessed 06.02.21]
  2. Fraser S and Blakeman T (2016). Chronic kidney disease: identification and management in primary care. Pragmatic and Observational Research [Online]. 7, p 21-32. Available from <> [Accessed 06.02.21]
  3. Zoccali C, Kramer A and Jager KJ (2010). Chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease – a review produced to contribute to the report ‘the status of health in the European union: towards a healthier Europe’. Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Plus [Online]. 3, p 213-224. Available from <> [Accessed 06.02.21]
  4. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) (2012). Clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney International Supplements [Online]. 3, p 1-150. Available from <> [Accessed 07.02.21]
  5. Gandy J (2014). Manual of Dietetic Practice. 5th ed
  6. Navaneethan SD, Yehnert H, Moustarah F et al (2009). Weight loss interventions in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology [Online]. 4 (10), p 1565-1574. Available from <> [Accessed 07.02.21]
  7. Abrass CK (2004). Overview: obesity: what does it have to do with kidney disease? Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology [Online]. 15 (11), p 2768-2772. Available from <> [Accessed 07.02.21]
  8. UK Renal Association (2011). Clinical practice guidelines for the detection, monitoring and care of patients with chronic kidney disease [Online]. Available from <> [Accessed 16.02.21]
  9. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) (2020). KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Nutrition in CKD: 2020 Update. American Journal of Kidney Diseases [Online]. 76 (3), p S1-S107. Available from <> [Accessed 03.02.21]
  10. BDA Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition Specialist Group (PENG 2018). A Pocket Guide to Clinical Nutrition. 5th ed
  11. Wright M, Southcott E, Maclaughlin H and Wineberg S (2019). Clinical Practice Guideline on Undernutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease. BMC Nephrology [Online]. Available from <> [Accessed 16.02.21]
  12. Kelly JT, Palmer SC, Wai SN, Ruospo M, Carrero JJ, Campbell KL and Strippoli GFM (2017). Healthy dietary patterns and risk of mortality and ESRD in CKD: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. [Online]. 12 (2), p 272-279. Available from <> [Accessed 22.02.21]
  13. Carrero JJ, González-Ortiz A, Avesani CM, Bakker SJL, Bellizzi V et al (2020). Plant-based diets to manage the risks and complications of chronic kidney disease. Nature Reviews Nephrology. [Online]. 16, p 525-542. Available from <> [Accessed 21.02.21]
  14. Cupisti A, Kovesdy CP, D’Alessandro C, Kalantar-Zadeh K (2018). Dietary approach to recurrent or chronic hyperkalemia in patients with decreased kidney function. Nutrients [Online]. 10 (3), p 261. Available from <> [Accessed 20.02.21]
  15. Cases A, Cigarran-Guldris S, Mas S and Gonzalez-Parra E (2019). Vegetable-based diets for chronic kidney disease? It is time to reconsider. Nutrients. [Online]. 11 (6), p 1263. Available from <> [Accessed 21.02.21]
  16. Goraya N, Munoz-Maldonado Y, Simoni J and Wesson DE (2019). Fruit and vegetable treatment of chronic kidney disease-related metabolic acidosis reduces cardiovascular risk better than sodium bicarbonate. American Journal of Nephrology. [Online]. 49 (6), p 438-448. Available from <> [Accessed 22.02.21]

Jessica Paradine (ANutr)

  1. Eussen S, Alles M, Uijterschout L, Brus F and van der Horst-Graat J (2015). Iron Intake and Status of Children Aged 6-36 Months in Europe: A Systematic Review. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 66(2-3), p 80-92
  2. World Health Organisation. Anaemia. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 March 2021]
  3. World Health Organisation (2001). Iron Deficiency Anaemia Assessment, Prevention and Control. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 March 2021]
  4. Booth I, Aukett M and Logan S (1997). Iron deficiency anaemia in infancy and early childhood. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 76(6), p 549-554
  5. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2010). Iron and Health. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 March 2021]
  6. First Steps Nutrition Trust (2019). Infant Milks in the UK: A Practical Guide for Health Professionals. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 March 2021]
  7. British Dietetic Association (nd). Iron: Food Fact Sheet. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 March 2021]
  8. Joo E, Kim K, Kim D, Lee J and Kim S (2016). Iron deficiency anaemia in infants and toddlers. Blood Research, 51(4), p 268
  9. Department of Health (1991). Dietary Reference Values: A Guide. London: HMSO
  10. Louis A and Kazal J (2002). Prevention of Iron Deficiency in Infants and Toddlers. American Family Physician, 66(7)
  11. Domellöf M, Braegger C, Campoy C, Colomb V, Decsi T, Fewtrell M, Hojsak I, Mihatsch W, Molgaard C, Shamir R, Turck D and van Goudoever J (2014). Iron Requirements of Infants and Toddlers. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, 58(1), p 119-129
  12. Leading UK first infant milk products:

SMA® Advanced First Infant Milk
Iron (mg/100ml): 0.65
Price (£/800g)*: 14.50

SMA® PRO First Infant Milk
Iron (mg/100ml): 0.31
Price (£/800g)*: 10.75 

SMA® Organic First Infant Milk
Iron (mg/100ml): 0.30
Price (£/800g)*: 2.00

SMA® LITTLE STEPS® First Infant Milk
Iron (mg/100ml): 0.31
Price (£/800g)*: 8.00

Cow and Gate First Infant Milk
Iron (mg/100ml): .53
Price (£/800g)*: 8.00

Aptamil® SENSAVIA® First Infant Milk

Iron (mg/100ml): 0.53
Price (£/800g)*: 14.00

Aptamil® First Infant Milk
Iron (mg/100ml): 0.53
Price (£/800g)*: 11.50

Aptamil® Organic First Infant Milk
Iron (mg/100ml): 0.53
Price (£/800g)*: 13.50

HIPP Organic First Infant Milk
Iron (mg/100ml): 0.50
Price (£/800g)*: 10.49

*Prices correct as of 3rd March 2021, based on purchase direct from the manufacturer and leading supermarkets.

Caroline Hill, RD

  1. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2006). Nutrition support in adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition (NICE clinical guidelines 32). Accessed online January 2021
  2. National Institute for Health and Care Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2012). Quality Standard 24. Nutrition support in adults. Accessed online January 2021
  3. Elia M (2003). The ‘MUST’ report. Nutritional screening for older adults: a multidisciplinary responsibility. BAPEN. Accessed online January 2021
  4. Stratton R (2018). Managing malnutrition to improve lives and save money. BAPEN 2018. Accessed online January 2021
  5. BAPEN (2020). The cost of malnutrition in England and potential cost savings from nutritional interventions (full report). Accessed online January 2021
  6. BAPEN (2018). Introduction to malnutrition. Accessed online January 2021
  7. BAPEN (2016). Food First/Food enrichment.,milkshakes%2C%20smoothies%20or%20enriched%20soups Accessed online January 2021
  8. PrescQIPP (2017). Guidelines for the appropriate prescribing of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) for adults in primary care. Accessed online January 2021
  9. Cawood AL et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of high-protein oral nutritional supplements. Ageing Res Rev. 2012; 11(2): 278-96
  10. Stratton RJ EM. A review of reviews: A new look at the evidence for oral nutritional supplements in clinical practice. Clin Nutr Suppl. 2007; 2(1): 5-23
  11. Malnutrition Pathway (2017). Managing Malnutrition: Including a Pathway for Appropriate Use of ONS. Accessed online January 2021
  12. Elia M (2015). The cost of malnutrition in England and potential cost savings from nutritional interventions (short version). Accessed online January 2021
  13. Rose E, Avey W, Begum K, Brooks N, Davies G, Finall S et al. Oral nutritional supplement prescribing in primary care: a new dietitian-led medicines management team model of practice. Journal of Prescribing Practice [Internet]. 2020 Nov 2; 2(11): 574-81
  14. Roberts HC, Lim SER, Cox NJ, Ibrahim K. The Challenge of Managing Undernutrition in Older People with Frailty. Nutrients [Internet]. 2019 Apr 10; 11(4): 808



Katy Stuart, RD

  1. Dudrick S (2019). History of PN. Journal American College of Nutrition; 28(13): 243-251. Doi:10.1080/07315724.2009.10719778
  2. Bernstein L (2015). The History and Creators of TPN. Leaders in Pharmaceutical Intelligence Group. [online]. Viewed 4/1/2021. Available at:
  3. Shamsuddin A (2003). Brief History of Development of PN Support. Malaysian Journal of Pharmaceuticals. [online]. Viewed 4/1/2021. Available at:
  4. British Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (2018). Nutrition support and assessment and planning. [online]. Viewed online 4/1/2021. Available at:
  5. Hellerman M and Singer P (2020). Advances in medical nutrition therapy PN. [online]. Viewed 4/1/2021. Available at:
  6. Lappas B, Patel D, Kumpt V, Adam D, Seidner D (2018). PN Indications, Access and Complications.
  7. Austin P and Stroud M (2007). Prescribing IV Nutrition. Published by Pharmaceutical Press
  8. Sexton J, Campbell H, Rahman M, Turner P (2009). Parenteral Nutrition in Adults the Basics. Pharmaceutical Journal 283: 275-278 [online]. Viewed 4/1/2021. Available at:
  9. Petkicwicz M, Cossletti A, Muhlebach S, Dudrick S (2009). Basics in clinical nutrition stability of PN administration. Clinical Nutrition. ESPEN.
  10. Caesar M, Mesotten M, Hermans G, Wouters P, Schetz M, Geert M, Van Cromphaut S, Ingels C, Meersseman P, Muller J, Vlasselaers D, Debaveye Y (2011). Early versus late PN in critically ill adults. New England Journal of Medicine; 365: 506-517
  11. Harvey S, Parrott F, Harrison D, Bear D, Segaran E, Beale R, Bellingan G, Leonard R, Mythen M, Rowan K (2014). Trial of early nutrition support in critically ill adults. New England Journal of Medicine; 371: 1673-1684
  12. Singer P, Berger M, Den Berghe G, Biolo G, Calder P, Forbes A, Griffiths R and Kregman G (2009). ESPEN Guidelines on PN in ICU. Clinical Nutrition 28: 387-400
  13. National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (2010) ‘A Mixed Bag’ PN report. [online]. Viewed 4/1/2021. Available at:
  14. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2006). Nutrition Support on Adults oral nutritional supplements, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition (CG32); [online]. Viewed 4/1/2021. Available at:
  15. Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Group (2019). Pocket Guide to Clinical Nutrition 5th edition
  16. Plavith M, Cabre E, Compillo B, Kandrup J, Marcheisini G, Schutz T, Shenkin A, Wendon J (2009). ESPEN guidelines on PN and hepatology. Clinical Nutrition 28: 436-444
  17. Bozzetti F, Staun M, Van Gossum A (2006). Home PN. Published by CAB International. ISBN-1-84593-156-4
  18. Pulicina E and Elia,M (2011). Designing Parenteral and enteral regimes in intestinal failure. Greenwich Media Ltd, London
  19. Braga M, Ljungquist O, Soeteis P, Fearon K, Weimann A, Bozzetti F (2009). ESPEN guidelines on PN and surgery. Clinical Nutrition 28: 378-386
  20. American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (2020). What is parenteral nutrition. [online]. Viewed 4/1/2021. Available at:

Chloe Hall, RD

  1. Jones R et al (2009). Management of common gastrointestinal disorders: quality criteria based on patients’ views and practice guidelines. British Journal of General Practice; 59(563): e199-208
  2. Jones et al (2008). Primary care research and clinical practice: gastroenterology. Postgraduate Medical Journal; 84: 454-458
  3. Online survey carried out in June and July 2010 involving a nationally representative sample of 508 GPs of all grades who were members of Data on file.
  4. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2015). Irritable bowel syndrome in adults. Diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in primary care. Clinical Guideline 61 Update 2015. Available at:
  5. Moayyedi P, Mearin F, Azpiroz F, Andresen V, Barbara G, Corsetti M, Emmanuel A, Hungin APS, Layer P, Stanghellini V, Whorwhell P, Zerbib F and Tack J (2017). Irritable Bowel Syndrome diagnosis and management: A simplified algorithm for clinical practice. United European Gastroenterology Journal. Vol 5 (6) 773-778
  6. Lacy BE, Mearin F, Chang L, Chey WD, Lembo AJ, Simren M and Spiller R (2016). Bowel Disorders Gastroenterology 150: 1393-1407
  7. Staudacher HM, Whelan K, Irving PM, Lomer MC (2011). Comparison of symptom response following advice for a diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs) versus standard dietary advice in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Oct; 24(5): 487-95
  8. Almquist E, Tornblom H and Simren M (2016). Practical management of irritable bowel syndrome: A clinical review Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 62: 30-48
  9. Chey WD, Kurlander J and Eswaran S (2015). Irritable bowel syndrome: A clinical review. Journal of the American Medical Association; 313: 949-958
  10. Bures J, Cyrany J, Kohoutova D, Forstl M, Rejchrt S, Kvetina J, Vorisek V, Kopacova M (2010). Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome. World Journal of Gastroenterology. Jun 28; 16(24): 2978-90
  11. Dukowicz AC, Lacy BE, Levine GM (2007). Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth; A Comprehensive Review. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Feb 3 (2) 112-122
  12. Lewis SJ, Franco S, Young G, O’Keefe SJ (1996). Altered bowel function and duodenal bacterial overgrowth in patients treated with omeprazole. Aliment Pharmacol Therapy. Aug; 10(4): 557-61
  13. Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti G (2003). High prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in coeliac patients with persistence of gastrointestinal symptoms after gluten withdrawal. American Journal of Gastroenterology 98(4): 839-43
  14. Reddymasu S and McCallum RW (2010). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in gastroparesis: are there any predictors? Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology Jan; 44(1): e8-13
  15. Grace E, Shaw C, Whelan K, Andreyev HJN (2013). Review article; small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence, clinical features, current and developing diagnostic tests and treatment. Alimentary pharmacology and therapeutics. 38: 674-688
  16. Peralta S, Cottone C, Doveri T, Almasio PL, Crazi A (2009). Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin. World Journal of Gastroenterology 7; 15(21): 2628-2631
  17. Soifer LO, Peralta D, Dima G, Besasso H (2010). Comparative clinical efficacy of a probiotic vs. an antibiotic in the treatment of patients with intestinal bacterial overgrowth and chronic abdominal functional distension: a pilot study. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam Dec 40 (4): 323-7
  18. Joan Gandy (2014), Manual of Dietetic Practice Fifth Edition, Wiley Blackwell
  19. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (2019). Diverticular disease: diagnosis and management. Available at Overview | Diverticular disease: diagnosis and management | Guidance | NICE
  20. Strate LL, Liu YL, Syngal S, Aldoori WH, Giovannucci EL (2008). Nut, corn and popcorn consumption and the incidence of diverticular disease Aug 27; 300(8): 907-14
  21. Maguire LH, Song M, Strate LE, Giovannucci EL (2013). Higher serum levels of vitamin D are associated with a reduced risk of diverticulitis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology Dec; 11(12): 1631-5
  22. Uno Y and Velkinburgh JCV (2016). Logical Hypothesis: low-FODMAP diet to prevent diverticulitis. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology Therapy Nov 6; 7(4): 503-512
  23. Smith MJ, Cherian P, Raju GS et al (2000). Bile acid malabsorption in persistent diarrhoea. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London; 34: 448-51
  24. Bannaga A, Kelman L, O’Connor M et al (2017). How bad is bile acid diarrhoea: an online survey of patient-reported symptoms and outcomes. BMJ Open Gastroenterology; 4: e000116
  25. Bannaga A, Kelman L, O'Connor M et al (2017). How bad is bile acid diarrhoea: an online survey of patient-reported symptoms and outcomes. BMJ Open Gastroenterol; 4: e000116
  26. Walters JRF (2010). Defining primary bile acid diarrhoea: making the diagnosis and recognising the disorder. Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; 4: 561-7
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  29. Barkun A, Love J, Gould M, Pluta H, Steinhart AH (2013). Bile Acid Malabsorption in Chronic Diarrhoea: pathophysiology and treatment. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology. Nov; 27(11): 653-659
  30. Walters JRF, Arasaradnam R, Andreyev HJN et al (2020). Diagnosis and management of bile acid diarrhoea: a survey of UK expert opinion and practice. Frontline Gastroenterology 11: 358-363
  31. Arasaradnam RP, Brown S, Forbes A, Fox MR, Hungin P, Kelman L, Major G, O’Connor M, Sanders DS, Sinha R, Smith SC, Thomas P, Walters JRF (2018). Guidelines for the Investigation of chronic diarrhoea in adults: British Society of Gastroenterology, 3rd edition Gut. 0: 1-20
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  36. Rathmann W et al (2001). Low faecal elastase-1 concentrations in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 36:1056-61
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  38. Leeds JS, Hopper AD, Huristone DP et al. (2007). Is edxocrine pancreatic insufficiency in adult coeliac disease a cause of persisting symptoms? Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 25: 265-71
  39. Riediger H, Adam U, Fischer E, Keck T, Pfeffer F, Hopt UT et al. (2007). Long-term outcome after resection for chronic pancreatitis in 224 patients. J Gastrointest Surg. 11: 949-959. Discussion 959-960
  40. Rashtak S, Ettore MW, Homburger HA et al (2008). Comparative usefulness of deamidated gliadin antibodies in the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 6: 426-32; quiz 370
  41. Collin P, Kaukinen K, Vogelsang H et al (2005). Antiendomysial and antihuman recombinant tissue transglutaminase antibodies in the diagnosis of coeliac disease: a biopsy-proven European multicentre study. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 17: 85-91
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  44. Rej A, Aziz I, Sanders DS (2020). Coeliac disease and non-coeliac wheat or gluten sensitivity Journal of Internal Medicine. Volume 288; Issue 5; p 537-549
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  46. Nikpour S (2012). Neurological Manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of coeliac disease: A Comprehensive review. Iranian Journal of Neurology 11 (2): 59-64
  47. Catassi C, Alaedini A, Bojarski C et al (2017). The overlapping area of non‐coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and wheat‐sensitive irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): an update. Nutrients 9: 1268
  48. Volta U, Bardella MT, Calabrò A, Troncone R, Corazza GR (2014). Sensitivity SGfN‐ An Italian prospective multicenter survey on patients suspected of having non‐coeliac gluten sensitivity. BMC Med 12: 85
  49. Dale HF, Biesiekierski JR, Lied GA (2019). Non‐coeliac gluten sensitivity and the spectrum of gluten‐related disorders: an updated overview. Nutrition Research Reviews 32: 28-37
  50. Aziz I, Hadjivassiliou M and Sanders DS (2015). The spectrum of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12, 516-526


CGR Cooke, ANutr

  1. Why Do We Stick To Our Bad Habits? [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 21 February 2021]
  2. Cooke C (2017). Big Fit Girl: Embrace the Body You Have. NHD Extra, [online] p 5-6. Available at: <> [Accessed 21 February 2021]
  3. Cosmopolitan (2021). 11 women who prove wellness isn't one size fits all. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 21 February 2021]
  4. com (2021). Bad Habits: Why We Can't Stop | Live Science. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 21 February 2021]
  5. Puhl R, Gold J, Luedicke J and DePierre J (2013). The effect of physicians’ body weight on patient attitudes: implications for physician selection, trust and adherence to medical advice. International Journal of Obesity, 37(11), p 1415-1421
  6. com (2021). Dietitians and Their Weight Struggles. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 21 February 2021