1. Megow et al (2017). A Randomised Controlled Trial of Green Tea Beverages on the in vivo Radical Scavenging Activity in Human Skin. Skin Pharm Physiol. 30(5), p 225-233
  2. Kapoor et al (2021). Green Tea Catechin Association with Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Erythema: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Molecules. 26(12): 3702. doi: 10.3390/molecules26123702
  3. Vaughn et al (2016). Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence. Phytotherapy Res. 30(8), p 1243-64
  4. Lademann et al (2011). Carotenoids in human skin. Exp Dermatol. 20(5), p 377-82
  5. Meinke et al (2017). Influences of Orally Taken Carotenoid-Rich Curly Kale Extract on Collagen I/Elastin Index of the Skin. Nutrs. 9(7)
  6. Calder (2017). Omega-3: the good oil. Nutr Bull. 42(2), p 132-140
  7. Asserin et al (2015). The effect of oral collagen peptide supplementation on skin moisture and the dermal collagen network: evidence from an ex vivo model and randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. J Cos Dermatol. 14(4), p 291-301
  8. Boruman and Sibilla (2014). Effects of a nutritional supplement containing collagen peptides on skin elasticity, hydration and wrinkles. Clin Int Age. 9 (1747-58)
  9. Yazaki et al (2017). Oral Ingestion of Collagen Hydrolysate Leads to the Transportation of Highly Concentrated Gly-Pro-Hyp and Its Hydrolyzed Form of Pro-Hyp into the Bloodstream and Skin. J Agric Food Chem. 65(11), p 2315-22
  10. Friedrich et al (2017). Message in a Bottle: Dialog between Intestine and Skin Modulated by Probiotics. Int J Mol Sci. 18(6)
  11. Jeong et al (2016). Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Skin Health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 25(56), p 2331-7
  12. Lee et al (2015). Clinical evidence of effects of Lactobacillus lantarum HY7714 on skin ageing: a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled study. J Microbiol Biotech. 25: 2160-8
  13. Peguet-Navarro et al (2008). Supplementation with oral probiotic bacteria protects human cutaneous immune homeostasis after UV exposure-double blind, randomised, placebo controlled clinical trial. Euro Dermatol. 18: 504-11

FOOD POVERTY IN THE UK by Farihah Choudhury, ANutr

  1. Children’s Commissioner (2021). Child ‘food poverty’ is just one symptom of a wider injustice: poverty. Accessed 31st January 2022.
  2. Bristol, North Somerset & South Gloucestershire (2020). JSNA Health and Wellbeing Profile 2020/21. Accessed 31st January 2022.
  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Children across the Globe (2017). Accessed 31st January 2022. IWP_2017_09.pdf (
  4. BMJ (2019). Accessed 31st January 2022. Food insecurity in UK is among worst in Europe, especially for children, says committee | The BMJ
  5. Food Foundation (2016). Measuring Household Food Insecurity. Accessed 31st January 2022.
  6. House of Commons Library (2021). Food Banks in the UK. Accessed 31st January 2022.
  7. Food Foundation (2021). Accessed 31st January 2022. FF_Impact-of-Covid_FINAL.pdf (
  8. Living Wage Foundation.
  9. United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (2011). Right To Food: Making it Happen. Accessed 31st January 2022.
  10. Liverpool City Region Combined Authority (2021). Liverpool City Region backs Right to Food campaign. Accessed 31st January 2022.
  11. Sustain (2021). Newham Council to keep ‘Eat for Free’ universal free school meals for ALL primary school pupils.
  12. NHS UK (June 2021). Healthy Start uptake data. Accessed 31st January 2022.
  13. Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2022). UK Poverty 2022: The essential guide to understanding poverty in the UK. Accessed 31st January 2022.


  1. Nutrition and Hydration Week [online]. Available at: Accessed 5 January 2022
  2. NHS England. 10 key characteristics of ‘good nutrition and hydration care’ [online]. Available at: Accessed 5 January 2022
  3. Hospital Caterers Association. Protected mealtimes policy [online]. Available at: Accessed 5 January 2022
  4. Porter J, Haines TP and Truby H. The efficacy of protected mealtimes in hospitalised patients: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial. BMC Med 15, 25 (2017).
  5. Tassone E, Tovey J, Paciepnik J et al. Should we implement mealtime assistance in the hospital setting? A systematic literature review with meta-analyses of current research. J Clin Nurs. 2015; 24: 2710-21
  6. Nutrition and Hydration week. Nutrition Champions Introductory Report [online]. Available at: Accessed 5 January 2022
  7. NHS Education for Scotland. Making a Difference The evolution of the nutrition champion role in NHS Scotland [online]. Available at: Accessed 5 January 2022
  8. The British Dietetic Association (2017). The Nutrition and Hydration Digest 2nd Edition [online] Available at: Accessed 5 January 2022
  9. Care Quality Commission. Health and Social Care Act 2008 Regulations 2014: Regulation 18. Available at: Accessed 5 January 2022
  10. Nutrition and Hydration Week [online]. CPD Framework for Nutrition and Hydration Week. Available at: Accessed 5 January 2022



Table 1 click here...

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  2. Wysokiński A, Sobów T, Kłoszewska I, Kostka T. Mechanisms of the anorexia of ageing-a review. Age . 2015 Aug;37(4): 9821
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  4. Fukunaga A, Uematsu H, Sugimoto K. Influences of aging on taste perception and oral somatic sensation. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005 Jan;60(1): 109-13
  5. Leij-Halfwerk S, Verwijs MH, van Houdt S, Borkent JW, Guaitoli PR, Pelgrim T et al. Prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition risk in European older adults in community, residential and hospital settings, according to 22 malnutrition screening tools validated for use in adults ≥65 years: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas. 2019 Aug; 126:80-9
  6. Crichton M, Craven D, Mackay H, Marx W, de van der Schueren M, Marshall S. A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition: associations with geographical region and sex. Age Ageing. 2019 Jan 1; 48(1): 38-48
  7. Visser M, Schaap LA, Wijnhoven HAH. Self-Reported Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviour in Dutch Older Adults Living Independently. Nutrients [Internet]. 2020 Nov 30; 12(12). Available from:
  8. Castro PD, Reynolds CM, Kennelly S, Geraghty AA, Finnigan K, McCullagh L et al. An investigation of community-dwelling older adults’ opinions about their nutritional needs and risk of malnutrition; a scoping review. Clin Nutr. 2021 May; 40(5): 2936-45
  9. Fruit & vegetables [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jan 3]. Available from:
  10. Pem D, Jeewon R. Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Benefits and Progress of Nutrition Education Interventions- Narrative Review Article. Iran J Public Health. 2015 Oct; 44(10): 1309–21
  11. NHS website. Why 5 A Day? [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jan 11]. Available from:
  12. Bouzari A, Holstege D, Barrett DM. Vitamin retention in eight fruits and vegetables: a comparison of refrigerated and frozen storage. J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Jan 28; 63(3): 957-62
  13. Whitelock E, Ensaff H. On Your Own: Older Adults’ Food Choice and Dietary Habits. Nutrients [Internet]. 2018 Mar 27; 10(4). Available from:
  14. Remnant J, Adams J. The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals. Cross-sectional analysis. Appetite. 2015 Sep; 92: 36-42
  15. Dorrington N, Fallaize R, Hobbs DA, Weech M, Lovegrove JA. A Review of Nutritional Requirements of Adults Aged ≥65 Years in the UK. J Nutr. 2020 Sep 1; 150(9): 2245-56
  16. Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Sayer AA. Sarcopenia. Lancet. 2019 Jun 29; 393(10191): 2636-46
  17. Malafarina V, Reginster J-Y, Cabrerizo S, Bruyère O, Kanis JA, Martinez JA et al. Nutritional Status and Nutritional Treatment Are Related to Outcomes and Mortality in Older Adults with Hip Fracture. Nutrients [Internet]. 2018 Apr; 10(5). Available from:
  18. Zhang Y, Zou L, Chen S-T, Bae JH, Kim DY, Liu X et al. Effects and Moderators of Exercise on Sarcopenic Components in Sarcopenic Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Med. 2021 May 19; 8: 649748
  19. Foscolou A, D’Cunha NM, Naumovski N, Tyrovolas S, Chrysohoou C, Rallidis L et al. The Association between Whole Grain Products Consumption and Successful Ageing: A Combined Analysis of MEDIS and ATTICA Epidemiological Studies. Nutrients [Internet]. 2019 May 29; 11(6). Available from:
  20. Fischer V, Haffner-Luntzer M, Amling M, Ignatius A. Calcium and vitamin D in bone fracture healing and post-traumatic bone turnover. Eur Cell Mater. 2018 Jun 22; 35: 365-85
  21. Cashman KD, Dowling KG, Škrabáková Z, Gonzalez-Gross M, Valtueña J, De Henauw S et al. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic? Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr; 103(4): 1033-44
  22. COVID-19 rapid evidence summary: vitamin D for COVID-19 | Advice | NICE [Internet]. NICE; 2020 [cited 2022 Jan 3]. Available from:
  23. Sukumar N, Saravanan P. Investigating vitamin B12 deficiency. BMJ. 2019 May; 365: l1865
  24. Edmonds CJ, Foglia E, Booth P, Fu CHY, Gardner M. Dehydration in older people: A systematic review of the effects of dehydration on health outcomes, healthcare costs and cognitive performance. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2021 Jul; 95: 104380
  25. Hooper L, Bunn D. Detecting dehydration in older people: useful tests. Nurs Times. 2015; 111(32-33): 12-6
  26. Bunn DK, Hooper L. Signs and Symptoms of Low-Intake Dehydration Do Not Work in Older Care Home Residents-DRIE Diagnostic Accuracy Study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2019 Aug; 20(8): 963-70
  27. Volkert D, Beck AM, Cederholm T, Cruz-Jentoft A, Goisser S, Hooper L et al. ESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition and hydration in geriatrics. Clin Nutr. 2019 Feb; 38(1): 10-47.


  1. Ofsted (2021). National statistics Fostering in England 2020 to 2021: main findings. Published 11 November 2021.
  2. Hadfield SC, Preece PM (2008). Obesity in looked-after children: is foster care protective from the dangers of obesity? Child Care, health and development Vol 34, Issue 6; Nov 2008; p 710-712.
  3. Croft G (2011). Obesity in looked-after children: findings of a local audit and strategies for intervention. Adoption & Fostering Jun 22, 2011. Retrieved Dec 09, 2021, from
  4. Department for Education (2011). Statistical First Release Outcomes for Children Looked After by Local Authorities in England as at 31 March 2014.
  5. Department for Education (2011). Fostering services: national minimum standards guidance for local authorities on the national minimum standards for providing fostering services. Published 8 March 2011.
  6. NICE (2021). Looked-after children and young people. NICE guideline [NG205], Published: 20 October 2021.
  7. Food in Care (2019). Food in Care Charter - Online survey to gather insight into food behaviour issues among Children in Care.
  8. Evaluation of the Food in Care training.
  9. Food in care online course: Food, Nutrition and Associated Behaviours.
  10. Food in Care (2016). Care for Something to Eat?


  2. National Library of Medicine. MedLine+ Metabolic Disorders.
  3. About PKU.
  4. Aliu, Ermal et al. Amino acid disorders. Annals of translational medicine. Vol 6,24 (2018): 471. doi:10.21037/atm.2018.12.12
  5. National Cancer Institute. autosomal recessive inheritance.
  6. 6 National Human Genome Research Institute. Amino Acids.
  7. Tyrosine - Uses, Side Effects, And More.
  8. Newborn blood spot cards explained. NSPKU. Key European
  9. Understanding the Importance of Diet For Life.
  10. van Wegberg AMJ, MacDonald A, Ahring K, et al. The complete European guidelines on phenylketonuria: diagnosis and treatment. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2017;12(1):162. Published 2017 Oct 12. doi:10.1186/s13023-017-0685-2
  12. NICE (2021). Sapropterin for treating hyperphenylalaninaemia in phenylketonuria. Technology appraisal guidance [TA729]. Published: 22 September 2021.

CANCER CACHEXIA by Joanna Injore BSc (Hons), RD

  1. Fearon K, Strasser F, Anker SD et al. Definition and classification of cancer cachexia: an international consensus. Lancet Oncol. 2011 May; 12(5): 489-95
  2. Van der Meij BS, Teleni L et al. Cancer cachexia: an overview of diagnostic criteria and therapeutic approaches for the accredited practicing dietitian. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2021. 34, 243-254
  3. Evans WJ, Morley JE et al. Cachexia: a new definition. Clin Nutr. 2008. 27, 793-799
  4. Argiles JM, Lopez-Soriano et al. The cachexia score (CASCO): a new tool for staging cachectic cancer patients. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2011. 2, 87-93
  5. Cederholm T, Jensen et al (2019). GLIM criteria for the diagnosis of malnutrition. A consensus report from the global clinical nutrition community. 2019 Feb; 10(1): 207-217. doi: 10.1002/jcsm.12383. PMID: 30920778; PMCID: PMC6438340
  6. Ni J, Zhang L. Cancer Cachexia: Definition, Staging, and Emerging Treatments. Cancer Manag Res. 2020 Jul 9; 12: 5597-5605
  7. Porporato P. Understanding cachexia as a cancer metabolism syndrome. Oncogenesis 5, e200 (2016). Available at: [assessed January 2022]
  8. Peixoto da Silva S, Santos JMO et al. Cancer cachexia and its pathophysiology: links with sarcopenia, anorexia and asthenia. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2020 Jun; 11(3): 619-635. Available at: [assessed January 22]
  9. Arends J, Bachmann P, Baracos V, Barthelemy N, Bertz H, Bozzetti F, et al. ESPEN guidelines on nutrition in cancer patients. Clin Nutr 2017;36:11e48. Available at: [accessed January 2022]
  10. Arends J, Strasser F, et al. Cancer cachexia in adult patients: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. ESMO Open. 2021 Jun;6(3):100092. Available at: [assessed January 2022]


  1. Mallory F, Simone L, Barbel K. Emotional eating and weight regulation: a qualitative study of compensatory behaviours and concerns. Journal of Eating Disorders. 2008; V6: 10. Available from:
  2. Jonathan D, Thomas A, Ariana M. Binge Eating Disorder in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Diagnostic and Management Challenges. Dovepress. 2020; 13: 1117-1131. Available from:
  3. Hannah K, Tatjana Van S, Satu M, Pekka J. Depression, emotional eating and long-term weight changes: a population-based prospective study. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2019; 16: 28. Available from:
  4. Dawn C, Amy O, Joanna B. Impact of Non-Diet Approaches on Attitudes, Behaviours and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behaviour. 2015; V2: 2. Available from:
  5. Abby B, Shirley W, Kerri B. Emotional Eating is Associated with Weight-Loss Success among Adults Enrolled in a Weight Loss Program. J Behav Med. 2016 August; 39(4): 727-732. Available from:


  1. Dr Trevor Brown, Professor Adam Fox, Dr Carina Venter, Dr Joanne Walsh and Dr Rosan Meyer et al. The Milk Allergy in Primary Care (MAP) Guideline 2019. The GP Infant Feeding Network.
  2. Lifschitz C, Szajewska H. Cow's milk allergy: evidence-based diagnosis and management for the practitioner. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2015; 174(2): 141-50
  3. Cow’s milk protein allergy in children: identification and treatment (2018). The Pharmaceutical Journal, 300 (7913)
  4. Schoemaker AA, Sprikkelman AB, Grimshaw KE. Incidence and natural history of challenge-proven cow's milk allergy in European children-EuroPrevall birth cohort. Allergy. 2015; 70(8): 963-72, available from; [accessed on 2/2/2022]
  5. National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2021) Cows Milk Allergy in Children, available from; [Accessed on 2/2/2022]
  6. Van Tulleken C. Overdiagnosis and industry influence: how cow’s milk protein allergy is extending the reach of infant formula manufacturers. BMJ
  7. Sicherer SH. Epidemiology of food allergy. Journal Allergy Clinical Immunology. 2011;127(3): 594-602, available from;, [Accessed on 2/2/2022]
  8. Smith TDH, Townsend R, Santer M, Hussain HS, Boyle RJ (2021). Milk allergy guidelines for infants in England promote over-diagnosis; A cross sectional survey. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2021.52 (1) 188-191, available at, [Accessed on 2/2/2022]
  9. The British Society for Allergy & Clinical Immunology (BSACI). Guideline for the diagnosis and management of cow’s milk allergy available from; [Accessed on 2/2/2022]
  10. Sladkevicius E, Nagy E, Lack G, Guest JF. Resource implications and budget impact of managing cow milk allergy in the UK. Journal Medical Economics. 2010; 13(1): 119-28
  11. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy (CMPA) weaning pack: setting up Group Education, available at; [Accessed on 20/1/2022]
  12. Venter C, Pereira B, Voigt K et al. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of food hypersensitivity in the first 3 years of life. Allergy. 2008; 63(3): 354-359, available at; doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2007.01570.x [Accessed on 28/1/2022]
  13. Digital NHS. Prescription cost analysis 2018, available at; [accessed on 2/2/2022]


  1. Moscatelli F, Sessa F, Valenzano A, Polito R (2021). COVID-19: Role of Nutritional care and PMID. Academic editor. 2021 Mar; 13(3): 976
  2. British Association of Parenteral and Enteral nutrition (BAPEN: 2020). Accessed at:
  3. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. NICE Guidance CG32 (2016). Nutrition support for adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition.
  4. Malnutrition pathway (2021). Managing Adult Malnutrition in the Community.
  5. NICE guidance (2012). Prescription of oral nutritional supplements.
  6. Stratton E and Elia A (2007). Who benefits from nutritional support: What is the evidence?
  7. European Journal of Gastrointestinal Hepatology. 19(5): 358
  8. Stratton R et al (2013). Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of oral nutritional supplements on hospital readmissions. Ageing Res. 12(4) 884-97
  9. Deutz et al (2014). Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with ageing. ESPEN 33: 929-36
  10. Bauer et al (2013.) Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older J AM MED Assoc.14(8) 542-549
  11. Betsi Cadwaladr NHS trust (2021). Guidelines for the use of nutritional supplements in primary care.
  12. Jin et al (2008). Factors affecting therapeutic compliance: a review from a patient's perspective. Feb 4 (1) 269-74
  13. Ruth Stow (2012). Solihull Nutrition Support Project.
  14. Hubbard G, Elia M, Holdoway A ( 2012). A systematic review of compliance to oral nutritional supplements. Clinical nutrition PMID 10:11 (3) 293-312
  15. Cawood AL, Green C and Stratton R (2010). The Budget Impact of Oral Nutritional Supplements on Older Community People at High Risk of Malnutrition in England. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society; 69, OEE7, E544


  1. Burke et al (2003). The efficacy of motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Available at
  2. Thorpe M (2003). Motivational interviewing and dietary behaviour change. (For Your Information). Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol 103, no 2, Feb 2003, p 150+
  3. Resnicow K, McMaster F (2012). Motivational Interviewing: moving from why to how with autonomy support. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 9:19. Published 2012 Mar 2. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-19
  4. Miller WR and Rollnick S (2010). What’s new since MI? Presentation at the International Conference on Motivational Interviewing (ICMI). Stockholm, June 6, 2010.
  5. Eating Disorders Review. Motivational Interviewing, vol 11; no 5.
  6. Miller WR and Rollnick,S (2009). Ten things that Motivational Interviewing is not. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37,129-140
  7. Rollnick S and Miller WR (1995). What is motivational interviewing? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,23, 325-334
  8. NHS Education for Scotland.


  1. Macaninch E, Buckner L, Amin P et al. Time for nutrition in medical education. BMJ Nutr Prev Health 2020; 3: 40-8
  2. Ying-Yi Xie J, Abramovich N, Burridge J, Jaffee A, Broadley I (2021). Nutrition education in core medical curricula: a call to action from tomorrow’s doctors. Future Healthcare Journal; 8(1); 19-21
  3. Guest JF, Panca M, Baeyens JP, de Man F, Ljungqvist O, Pichard C, Wait S and Wilson L (2011). Health economic impact of managing patients following a community-based diagnosis of malnutrition in the UK, Clinical Nutrition, Vol 30, issue 4, p 422-429, August 2011
  4. Elia M on behalf of the Malnutrition Action Group of BAPEN and the National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre (2015). The cost of malnutrition in England and potential cost savings from nutritional interventions. Accessed Dec 2021., p. 5
  5. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Nutrition support for adults: oral nutrition support, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition (CG32). NICE, 2006
  6. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. NICE guideline NG28: Type 2 diabetes in adults: management. London: NICE, 2015